## Angular correlation function and scattering coefficient of electromagnetic waves scattered by a buried object under a two-dimensional rough surface

JOSA A, Vol. 15, Issue 12, pp. 2995-3002 (1998)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.15.002995

Acrobat PDF (300 KB)

### Abstract

We study three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic wave scattering from a buried object under a two-dimensional (2-D) random rough surface. The surface integral equations of wave fields are used for the rough surface and the surface of the buried object. The surface fields are then solved by the method of moments. The scattered wave field from the object is represented by the rough-surface field so that the matrix equation can be solved efficiently by means of the sparse-matrix canonical-grid method. Numerical simulations are illustrated for a perfectly conducting sphere buried under a 2-D rough surface. Both the scattering coefficient (normalized radar cross section) and the angular correlation function (ACF) are calculated. The study of 3-D electromagnetic scattering allows the use of azimuthal angular averaging and the study of cross polarization and the polarization angular correlation function (PACF). It is found that the ACF is more effective in suppressing the clutter that is due to the rough-surface scattering, and the PACF is more useful for the detection of the buried object.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

**OCIS Codes**

(290.0290) Scattering : Scattering

(290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces

**Citation**

Guifu Zhang, Leung Tsang, and Kyung Pak, "Angular correlation function and scattering coefficient of electromagnetic waves scattered by a buried object under a two-dimensional rough surface," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **15**, 2995-3002 (1998)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-15-12-2995

Sort: Year | Journal | Reset

### References

- L. Peters, J. Daniels, and J. Young, “Ground penetrating radar as a subsurface environmental sensing tool,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1802–1822 (1994).
- S. Vitebskiy, L. Carin, M. A. Ressler, and F. H. Le, “Ultra-wideband, short-pulse ground-penetrating radar: simulation and measurement,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 762–772 (1997).
- X. Yang, D. A. Gregory, and P. S. Erbach, “Clutter reduction and target detection enhancement using wavelet transform techniques,” in Optical Pattern Recognition VI, D. P. Casasent and T.-H. Chao, eds., Proc. SPIE 2490, 125–139 (1995).
- Y. Yamaguchi and T. Moriyama, “Polarimetric detection of objects buried in snowpack by a synthetic aperture FM–CM radar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 45–51 (1996).
- A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vols. I and II.
- L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1985).
- L. Tsang, C. H. Chan, and K. Pak, “Backscattering enhancement of a two-dimensional random rough surface (three-dimensional scattering) based on Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 711–715 (1994).
- P. Tran and A. A. Maradudin, “The scattering of electromagnetic waves from 2D metallic surface,” Opt. Commun. 110, 269–273 (1994).
- K. O’Neill, R. Lussky, and K. D. Paulsen, “Scattering from a metallic reflector embedded in a lossy dielectric beneath a random rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 34, 367–376 (1996).
- A. Madrazo and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Scattering of light and other electromagnetic waves from a body buried beneath a highly rough random surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1859–1866 (1997).
- G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere behind a plane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 110–117 (1993).
- S. Tjuatja, A. K. Fung, S. Wu, P. Zhou, and Z. Li, “Remote sensing of buried objects: an analysis using FD–TD simulation,” presented at the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium ’97, Singapore, August 3–8, 1997.
- Y. H. Chen, W. C. Chew, and M. L. Oristaglio, “Application of perfectly matched layers to the transient modeling of subsurface EM problems,” Geophysics 62, 1730–1736 (1997).
- R. L. Wagner, J. Song, and W. C. Chew, “Monte Carlo simulation of electromagnetic scattering from two-dimensional random rough surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 235–245 (1997).
- K. Pak, “Studies of large-scale random rough surface scattering problems based on Monte Carlo simulations with efficient computational integral equation methods,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., 1996).
- K. Pak, L. Tsang, C. H. Chan, and J. Johnson, “Backscattering enhancement of electromagnetic waves from two-dimensional perfectly conducting random rough surfaces based on Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2491–2499 (1995).
- K. Pak, L. Tsang, and J. Johnson, “Numerical simulations and backscattering enhancement of scattered waves from two-dimensional dielectric random rough surfaces with sparse-matrix canonical grid method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1515–1529 (1997).
- S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 834–837 (1988).
- T. R. Michel and K. A. O’Donnell, “Angular correlation functions of amplitudes scattered from a one-dimensional, perfectly conducting rough surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1374–1384 (1992).
- M. Nieto-Vesperinas and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Intensity angular correlations of light multiply scattered from random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 150–157 (1993).
- A. A. Maradudin, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and E. Thorsos, “Enhanced backscattering of light from randomly rough surfaces and related phenomena I: one-dimensional surfaces and angular correlation function of scattered fields,” Comments Condens. Matter Phys. 17, 13–37 (1994).
- L. Tsang, G. Zhang, and K. Pak, “Detection of a buried object under a single random rough surface with angular correlation function in EM wave scattering,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 300–304 (1996).
- G. Zhang, L. Tsang, and Y. Kuga, “Angular correlation function of wave scattering by a buried object embedded in random discrete scatterers under a rough surface,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 14, 144–151 (1997).
- G. Zhang, L. Tsang, and Y. Kuga, “Studies of the angular correlation function of scattering by random rough surfaces with and without a buried object,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 444–453 (1997).
- G. Zhang and L. Tsang, “Application of the angular correlation function of clutter scattering and correlation imaging in target detection,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36 (5) (1998).

## Cited By |
Alert me when this paper is cited |

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article | Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.