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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 15, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1998
  • pp: 748–752

Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 748-752 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.15.000748


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Abstract

We report the waveguiding properties of a new type of low-loss optical waveguide. The photonic crystal fiber can be engineered to support only the fundamental guided mode at every wavelength within the transparency window of silica. Experimentally, a robust single mode has been observed over a wavelength range from 337 nm to beyond 1550 nm (restricted only by available wavelength sources). By studying the number of guided modes for fibers with different parameters and the use of an effective index model, we are able to quantify the requirements for monomode operation. The requirements are independent of the scale of the fiber for sufficiently short wavelengths. Further support for the predictions of the effective index model is given by the variation of the spot size with wavelength.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.2290) Materials : Fiber materials
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

Citation
J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 748-752 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-15-3-748


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References

  1. See, e.g., the special issues on Development and Applications of Materials Exhibiting Photonic Band Gaps, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 279–413 (1993); J. Mod. Opt. 41, special issue on “Photonic Band Structures,” (1994); Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. G. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996).
  2. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787–3790 (1996); J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995).
  3. D. M. Atkin, P. St. J. Russell, T. A. Birks, and P. J. Roberts, “Photonic band structure of guided Bloch modes in high index films fully etched through with periodic microstructure,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1035–1053 (1996); P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, T. A. Birks, and P. J. Roberts, “Bound modes of two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. G. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996).
  4. T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-d photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
  5. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996); see also errata Opt. Lett. 22, 484–485 (1997).
  6. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
  7. R. J. Tonucci, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, and C. E. Ford, “Nanochannel array glass,” Science 258, 783–785 (1992); H. B. Lin, R. J. Tonucci, and A. J. Campillo, “Observation of two-dimensional photonic band behavior in the visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 2927–2929 (1996).
  8. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).
  9. D. E. Aspnes, “Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: microscopic perspective,” Am. J. Phys. 50, 704–709 (1982).
  10. W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, and R. B. Dyott, “Determination of core diameter and refractive-index difference of single-mode fibers by observation of the far-field pattern,” Microwaves Opt. Acoustics 1, 13–17 (1976).

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