OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 15, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1998
  • pp: 1027–1035

Effect of background components on spatial-frequency masking

Jian Yang and Scott B. Stevenson  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 15, Issue 5, pp. 1027-1035 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.15.001027


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (239 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Previous studies of spatial-frequency masking and adaptation have shown that the contrast-detection threshold elevates maximally when the test spatial frequency is the same as the masking (or adapting) frequency but changes only slightly when they are separated by two or more octaves. At low spatial frequencies, however, the peak of the threshold-elevation function does not obey this rule: there is a well-established peak shift in the threshold-elevation functions toward higher spatial frequencies. We investigated whether this shift might be due to the masking effects caused by the background field, which contributes energy at the very low end of the spectrum. We first measured the effect of a 3-cycles/deg (c/deg) mask on detection of a range of test frequencies, compared with unmasked detection thresholds. We then measured the combined effect of a 2-c/deg and a 3-c/deg mask on detection, compared with detection with just the 2-c/deg mask. The comparison in the second case still tests the effect of the 3-c/deg mask, but the presence of the hidden 2-c/deg mask causes the peak masking effect to shift toward higher frequencies. This result provides a proof of concept for the hypothesis that the peak shift at low spatial frequencies is caused by the low-frequency energy in the background field, which is present in both masked and unmasked conditions. A five-parameter quantitative model of frequency masking is presented that describes the pure contrast-detection function, the frequency-masking functions at mask frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 2, and 3 c/deg, and the peak-shift phenomenon.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.1800) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - contrast sensitivity
(330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
(330.6110) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial filtering
(330.7320) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision adaptation

Citation
Jian Yang and Scott B. Stevenson, "Effect of background components on spatial-frequency masking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1027-1035 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-15-5-1027


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of Fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 197, 551–566 (1968).
  2. C. Blakemore and F. W. Campbell, “On the existence of neurones in the human visual system selectively sensitive to the orientation and size of retinal images,” J. Physiol. (London) 203, 237–260 (1969).
  3. N. Graham, “Spatial frequency channels in the human visual system: effects of luminance and pattern drift rate,” Vision Res. 12, 53–68 (1972).
  4. N. V. S. Graham, Visual Pattern Analyzers (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1989).
  5. N. Graham and J. Nachmias, “Detection of grating patterns containing two spatial frequencies: a comparison of single-channel and multiple-channels models,” Vision Res. 11, 251–259 (1971).
  6. R. F. Hess and R. J. Snowden, “Temporal properties of human visual filters: number, shapes and spatial covariation,” Vision Res. 32, 47–59 (1992).
  7. L. A. Olzak and J. P. Thomas, “Seeing spatial patterns,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, Vol. 1, Sensory Processes and Perception, K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.
  8. C. F. Stromeyer III and S. Klein, “Evidence against narrow-band spatial frequency channels in human vision: the detectability of frequency modulated gratings,” Vision Res. 15, 899–910 (1975).
  9. J. P. Thomas, “Model of the function of receptive fields in human vision,” Psychol. Rev. 77, 121–134 (1970).
  10. A. B. Watson and J. G. Robson, “Discrimination at threshold: labelled detectors in human vision,” Vision Res. 21, 1115–1122 (1981).
  11. H. R. Wilson, D. K. McFarlane, and G. C. Phillips, “Spatial frequency tuning of orientation selective units estimated by oblique masking,” Vision Res. 23, 873–882 (1983).
  12. R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, and L. G. Thorell, “Spatial frequency selectivity of cells in macaque visual cortex,” Vision Res. 22, 545–559 (1982).
  13. R. L. De Valois and K. K. De Valois, Spatial Vision (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1988).
  14. L. Maffei and A. Fiorentini, “The visual cortex as a spatial frequency analyser,” Vision Res. 13, 1255–1267 (1973).
  15. J. A. Movshon, I. D. Thompson, and D. J. Tolhurst, “Spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity of neurones in areas 17 and 18 of the cat’s visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 283, 101–120 (1978).
  16. R. Shapley and P. Lennie, “Spatial frequency analysis in the visual system,” Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 547–583 (1985).
  17. M. S. Silverman, D. H. Grosof, R. L. De Valois, and S. D. Elfar, “Spatial-frequency organization in primate striate cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 711–715 (1989).
  18. A. Pantle and R. Sekuler, “Size-detecting mechanisms in human vision,” Science 162, 1146–1148 (1968).
  19. M. W. Greenlee, S. Magnussen, and K. Nordby, “Spatial vision of the achromat: spatial frequency and orientation-specific adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 395, 661–678 (1988).
  20. D. J. Tolhurst, “Separate channels for the analysis of shape and movement of a moving visual stimulus,” J. Physiol. (London) 231, 385–402 (1973).
  21. C. F. Stromeyer III, S. Klein, B. M. Dawson, and L. Spillmann, “Low spatial-frequency channels in human vision: adaptation and masking,” Vision Res. 22, 225–233 (1982).
  22. J. M. Foley and Y. Yang, “Forward pattern masking: effects of spatial frequency and contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 2026–2037 (1991).
  23. J. M. Foley and G. M. Boynton, “Forward pattern masking and adaptation: effects of duration, interstimulus interval, contrast, and spatial and temporal frequency,” Vision Res. 33, 959–980 (1993).
  24. M. A. Georgeson and J. M. Georgeson, “Facilitation and masking of briefly presented gratings: time-course and contrast dependence,” Vision Res. 27, 369–379 (1987).
  25. J. Ross and H. D. Speed, “Contrast adaptation and contrast masking in human vision,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 246, 61–69 (1991).
  26. J. Ross, H. D. Speed, and M. J. Morgan, “The effects of adaptation and masking on incremental thresholds for contrast,” Vision Res. 33, 2051–2056 (1993).
  27. M. Carandini and D. Ferster, “A tonic hyperpolarization underlying contrast adaptation in cat visual cortex,” Science 276, 949–952 (1997).
  28. G. E. Legge, “Sustained and transient mechanisms in human vision: temporal and spatial properties,” Vision Res. 18, 69–81 (1978).
  29. G. E. Legge, “Spatial frequency masking in human vision: binocular interactions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 838–847 (1979).
  30. D. H. Peterzell and D. Y. Teller, “Individual differences in contrast sensitivity functions: the lowest spatial frequency channels,” Vision Res. 36, 3077–3085 (1996).
  31. J. Yang and W. Makous, “Spatiotemporal separability in contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 34, 2569–2576 (1994).
  32. J. Yang, X. Qi, and W. Makous, “Zero frequency masking and a model of contrast sensitivity,” Vision Res. 35, 1965–1978 (1995).
  33. J. Yang and W. Makous, “Modeling pedestal experiments with amplitude instead of contrast,” Vision Res. 35, 1979–1989 (1995).
  34. R. J. Snowden, “Adaptability of the visual system is inversely related to its sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 25–32 (1994).
  35. A. B. Watson and D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
  36. N. Brady and D. J. Field, “What’s constant in contrast constancy? The effects of scaling on the perceived contrast of bandpass patterns,” Vision Res. 35, 739–756 (1995).
  37. A. B. Watson, “Efficiency of a model human image code,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2401–2417 (1987).
  38. J. Yang and W. Makous, “Implicit masking constrained by spatial inhomogeneities,” Vision Res. 37, 1917–1927 (1997).
  39. J. Yang and W. Makous, “Three theories of the low frequency cut,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (Suppl.), 37, S733 (1996).
  40. C. F. Stromeyer III and B. Julesz, “Spatial frequency masking in vision: critical bands and spread of masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1221–1232 (1972); M. A. Webster and E. Miyahara, “Contrast adaptation and the spatial structure of natural images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2355–2366 (1997).
  41. H. Akutsu and G. E. Legge, “Discrimination of compound gratings: spatial-frequency channels or local features?” Vision Res. 35, 2685–2695 (1995).
  42. J. Nachmias, “Masked detection of gratings: the standard model revised,” Vision Res. 33, 1359–1365 (1993).
  43. W. L. Makous, “Fourier models and loci of adaptation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2323–2345 (1997).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited