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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 15, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1998
  • pp: 1167–1173

Speckle dynamics from in-plane rotating diffuse objects in complex ABCD optical systems

H. T. Yura, B. Rose, and S. G. Hanson  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 15, Issue 5, pp. 1167-1173 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.15.001167


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Abstract

The characteristics of a fully developed speckle pattern that results from in-plane rotation of a diffuse object observed in an arbitrary observation plane, as described by the spatiotemporal cross-correlation function of the optical intensity in complex ABCD optical systems, are derived and discussed. Here we consider off-axis illumination, which is in contrast to previous work in which the illuminating beam was assumed to be parallel to the axis of rotation. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the observed pattern are interpreted in terms of speckle boiling, rotation, and translation. For off-axis illumination it is shown theoretically and experimentally that, for Fourier transform optical systems, in-plane rotation causes the speckles to translate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of surface motion, whereas for an imaging system, the translation is parallel to the direction of surface motion. On this basis, we discuss a novel method, which is independent of both the optical wavelength and the position of the laser spot on the object, for determining either the angular velocity or the corresponding in-plane displacement of the target object.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.6140) Coherence and statistical optics : Speckle
(030.6600) Coherence and statistical optics : Statistical optics
(110.6150) Imaging systems : Speckle imaging
(280.3420) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser sensors

History
Original Manuscript: September 26, 1997
Revised Manuscript: November 17, 1997
Manuscript Accepted: January 22, 1998
Published: May 1, 1998

Citation
H. T. Yura, B. Rose, and S. G. Hanson, "Speckle dynamics from in-plane rotating diffuse objects in complex ABCD optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1167-1173 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-15-5-1167


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References

  1. B. E. A. Saleh, “Speckle correlation measurements of the velocity of a small rotating object,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2344–2246 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Asakura, “An effect of curvature of rotating diffuse objects on the dynamics of speckles produced in the diffraction field,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 26, 185–192 (1981). [CrossRef]
  3. B. Rose, H. Imam, S. G. Hanson, H. T. Yura, R. S. Hansen, “Laser-speckle angular displacement sensor: a theoretical and experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2119–2129 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Churnside, “Speckle from a rotating diffuse object,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1464–1469 (1982). [CrossRef]
  5. As discussed in Ref. 4, “This is the only qualitative difference between the motion of a speckle pattern produced by a flat, constant-velocity object and that produced by a curved, constantly rotating object as long as the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the illuminating beam,” p. 1464.
  6. Included in Ref. 4 is a thorough review of previous work regarding speckle resulting from in-plane rotation.
  7. T. Yoshimura, K. Nakagawa, N. Wakabayashi, “Rotational and boiling motion of speckles in a two-lens imaging system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1018–1022 (1986). [CrossRef]
  8. H. T. Yura, S. G. Hanson, “Optical beam wave propagation through complex optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1931–1948 (1987). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Asakura, N. Takai, “Dynamic laser speckles and their application to velocity measurements of the diffuse object,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 25, 179–194 (1981). [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), Chap. 2.
  11. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 20.
  12. We omit in the following the unimportant multiplicative factor exp[iω0t], where ω0 is the angular frequency of the incident light.
  13. H. T. Yura, B. Rose, S. G. Hanson, “Dynamic Laser Speckle in Complex ABCD Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1160–1166 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. In all the measurements indicated in Figs. 4–7 we applied negative angular displacements θ, but to simplify the graphs, we inserted the magnitude of θ.
  15. S. G. Hanson, “The laser gradient anemometer,” in Photon Correlation Techniques in Fluid Mechanics, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference at Kiel-Damp, Germany, May 23–26, 1982, E. O. Schulz-DuBois, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 212–220.

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