OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 16, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1999
  • pp: 36–52

Shape from shading for multiple light sources

Ying-li Tian, H. T. Tsui, S. Y. Yeung, and Songde Ma  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 16, Issue 1, pp. 36-52 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.16.000036


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (5295 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Many shape recovery algorithms—in particular, shape from shading (SFS)—are based on a point source at infinity or a uniform hemispheric source. It will be convenient and useful if we can perform SFS under indoor lights that may be spherical, cylindrical, or flat (ceiling lights) in shape in an uncontrolled environment. As a first step toward this goal we propose a light source model for each of the above shapes for performing SFS. In this study we give the derivation of the rectangular, spherical, and cylindrical light source models. In indoor environments the positions (usually on the ceiling or walls) of the light sources are known. Assuming that the target object is small relative to the distances from the sources, we have derived a reflectance map for the Lambertian surface of an object under a mixture of light sources of the above shapes. Hence the shape recovery can be performed by using the SFS technique. This is a significant step toward the application of SFS in uncontrolled practical environments under household or office lighting. This technique of shape recovery is verified by many examples of simulations and real experiments, and the results are good.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
(150.0150) Machine vision : Machine vision
(330.0330) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision, color, and visual optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 2, 1998
Revised Manuscript: August 12, 1998
Manuscript Accepted: September 21, 1998
Published: January 1, 1999

Citation
Ying-li Tian, H. T. Tsui, S. Y. Yeung, and Songde Ma, "Shape from shading for multiple light sources," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 36-52 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-16-1-36


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. B. K. P. Horn, “Obtaining shape from shading information,” in The Psychology of Computer Vision, P. H. Winston, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975), pp. 115–155.
  2. B. K. P. Horn, M. J. Brooks, Shape from Shading (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1989), pp. 53–87.
  3. M. S. Langer, S. W. Zucker, “Shape-from-shading on a cloudy day,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 467–478 (1994). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Ikeuchi, “Determining surface orientations of specular surfaces by using the photometric stereo,” IEEE Trans. Pattern. Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-6, 661–669 (1981). [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Langer, S. W. Zucker, “What is a light source?” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 172–178.
  6. S. K. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade, “Determining shape and reflectance of hybrid surfaces by photometric sampling,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 6, 418–431 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Sato, K. Ikeuchi, “Temporal-color space analysis of reflection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2990–3002 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. L. Tian, H. T. Tsui, “3D shape recovery from two color image sequences using a genetic algorithm,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 674–678.
  9. Y. L. Tian, H. T. Tsui, “Shape recovery from a color image for non-Lambertian surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 397–404 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1959).
  11. Y. M. Zhang, X. Z. Sun, Applied Optics (Mechanical Industry Publishing House (Beijing, 1982).
  12. M. Bichsel, A. P. Pentland, “A simple algorithm for shape from shading,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif.1992), pp. 459–465.
  13. J. Oliensis, “Shape from shading as a partially well-constrained problem,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 54, 163–183 (1991).
  14. P. Dupuis, J. Oliensis, “Direct method for reconstructing shape from shading,” in Proceedings of the Image Understanding Workshop (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), pp. 563–571.
  15. J. Oliensis, P. Dupuis, “A global algorithm for shape from shading,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 692–701.
  16. R. Zhang, P. Tsai, J. E. Cryer, M. Shah, “Analysis of shape from shading techniques,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 377–384.
  17. S. A. Shafer, T. Kanade, “Using shadows in finding surface orientations,” Comput. Vis. Graph. Image Process. 22, 145–146 (1983). [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Kender, E. M. Smith, “Shape from darkness: deriving surface information from dynamic shadows,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif.1987), pp. 539–546.
  19. L. Wang, J. Clark, “Active shape and depth extraction from shadow images,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 550–553.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited