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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 16, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1999
  • pp: 2658–2665

Method to calculate lateral and axial gain factors of optical setups with a large solid angle

S. Grill and E. H. K. Stelzer  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 16, Issue 11, pp. 2658-2665 (1999)

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With the use of an approach that is equivalent to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, it is possible to derive the axial and lateral gain factors of optical systems consisting of rotationally symmetric pupil plane filters with a large solid angle. We discuss the two- and three-dimensional cases. In contrast to previously published approaches, our results are valid for solid angles as large as 4π. The annular circular aperture is discussed as an example. Resolution gains for annular binary filters consisting of s transmitting rings are calculated, allowing the discussion of the optical properties of all rotationally symmetric binary filters in terms of gain factors. Optical systems with binary two-ring apertures are discussed; a special case is the 4Pi setup. Our novel method yields simple analytical formulas that are functions of the various aperture parameters.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(110.1220) Imaging systems : Apertures
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy

Original Manuscript: February 18, 1999
Revised Manuscript: May 28, 1999
Manuscript Accepted: May 28, 1999
Published: November 1, 1999

S. Grill and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Method to calculate lateral and axial gain factors of optical setups with a large solid angle," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2658-2665 (1999)

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