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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 16, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 1999
  • pp: 299–304

Analysis of femtosecond-order optical pulses diffracted by periodic structure

Hiroyuki Ichikawa  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 16, Issue 2, pp. 299-304 (1999)

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Effects of spatial fine structure on a femtosecond-order optical pulse are numerically studied by using nondispersive and linear dielectric diffraction gratings in the resonance domain. Whereas a pulse longer than 100 fs is expected to behave the same as a continuous wave, the distribution of energy into each diffraction order deviates gradually for shorter pulses. This is due to the wide spectral profile of the pulsed wave. Overlap of adjacent diffraction orders will also occur for a pulse shorter than 5 fs. Therefore extra attention should be paid to designing optical elements based on diffractive structure for use with ultra-short pulsed waves.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(270.5530) Quantum optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena

Original Manuscript: July 14, 1998
Manuscript Accepted: October 6, 1998
Published: February 1, 1999

Hiroyuki Ichikawa, "Analysis of femtosecond-order optical pulses diffracted by periodic structure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 299-304 (1999)

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  1. The term resonance domain is explained briefly in E. Noponen, A. Vasara, J. Turunen, J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Synthetic diffractive optics in the resonance domain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1206–1213 (1992). A more rigorous definition would be the range of a grating period normalized by wavelength where neither effective medium theory nor scalar diffraction theory is accurate. For example, refer to Fig. 1.6 in Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds. (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1997), p. 12. [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 36–38.
  3. Well known and organized examples are the following: R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980); T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73, 894–937 (1985); J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optics: from promise to fruition,” in Trends in Optics, A. Consortini, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), Chap. 6, pp. 111–123. [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ichikawa, “Electromagnetic analysis of diffraction gratings by the finite-difference time-domain method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 152–157 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Ziolkowski, “The incorporation of microscopic material models into the FDTD approach for ultrafast optical pulse simulations,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 375–391 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. Although semiconductor-based pulse lasers have much higher pulse frequencies, e.g., some reach several tens of GHz, their pulse durations are longer than 1 ps. See, for example, Abstracts of Fifth International Workshop on Femtosecond Technology (The Femtosecond Technology Research Association, Tsukuba, Japan, 1998).
  7. K. L. Shlager, J. B. Schneider, “A selective survey of the finite-difference time-domain literature,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 37, 39–56 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Turunen, “Diffraction theory of microrelief gratings,” in Micro-Otics, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), Chap. 2, pp. 31–52.
  9. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302–307 (1966).
  10. A. P. Zhao, A. Räisänen, S. R. Cvetkovic, “A fast and efficient FDTD algorithm for the analysis of planar microstrip discontinuities by using a simple source excitation scheme,” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 5, 341–343 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. J.-C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).
  13. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamental of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 787.
  14. I. J. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205–1209 (1965). [CrossRef]

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