The problem of oblique incidence of plane waves and Gaussian beams on finite-aperture gratings (the number of grooves and their length and depth are all finite) in slab waveguides is analyzed by means of a four-wave two-dimensional coupled-mode theory (2D-CMT). This model considers the finite aperture of the gratings and the correct simultaneous interaction among all four relevant waves (TE<sup>+</sup>, TE<sup>−</sup>, TM<sup>+</sup>, and TM<sup>−</sup>) by means of Bragg diffraction at oblique incidence. The grating’s geometry and boundary conditions are properly accounted for, and the problem is solved numerically by a finite-difference method. Near-field and far-field distributions, as well as reflection and transmission (power) coefficients (as functions of the plane-wave incidence angle), are calculated. The model is compared with the degenerate case of two-wave coupling that considers interaction only between pairs (e.g., TE<sup>+</sup>↔TE<sup>−</sup>), and significant differences may be observed. Compatibility and differences between the 2D-CMT and the one-dimensional CMT (grooves with infinite length) are also presented, in addition to the influence of the beam width and the groove length on the emerging waves. The analysis is general and can be performed on many kinds of realistic beams, grating shapes, and applications.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation
Nahum Izhaky and Amos Hardy, "Obliquely incident wave coupling on finite-aperture waveguide gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 305-315 (1999)