OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 16, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1999
  • pp: 669–678

Role of phase information and eye pursuit in the detection of moving objects in noise

David L. Wilson and Ravindra Manjeshwar  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 669-678 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.16.000669


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (438 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

As part of an ongoing study that uses objective image quality measures to optimize medical imaging x-ray fluoroscopy, we investigated two basic features of the detection of moving cylinders that mimic arteries, catheters, and guide wires. First, we compared detection with and without a phase cue consisting of a nearby alternating light and dark square. Depending on object size and velocity, phase cuing improved detection from 1% to 15% and gave an average of 6%, an effect much smaller than the 38% predicted from a Monte Carlo simulation of the ideal observer. Evidently, humans were limited in their ability to incorporate knowledge of the phase cue. Second, we evaluated the effect of eye pursuit of a fixation point that moved with the target. In general, motion at the highest velocity degraded (74%) and enhanced (68%) detection of small and large objects, respectively. With eye pursuit, both effects were substantially reduced in a manner consistent with a reduced retinal velocity. Our data compared favorably with a human observer model that included a spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity response and smooth-pursuit eye movements with a gain of 0.8. These mechanisms of perception are thought to be present in coronary artery x-ray fluoroscopy imaging, where phase information is available from the moving heart and where motion markers are available from x-ray opaque markers incorporated in thin catheters and guide wires.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.3000) Imaging systems : Image quality assessment
(110.4280) Imaging systems : Noise in imaging systems
(330.1800) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - contrast sensitivity
(330.1880) Vision, color, and visual optics : Detection
(330.2210) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - eye movements
(330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
(330.4150) Vision, color, and visual optics : Motion detection
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics

Citation
David L. Wilson and Ravindra Manjeshwar, "Role of phase information and eye pursuit in the detection of moving objects in noise," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 669-678 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-16-3-669


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. R. Aufrichtig, P. Xue, C. W. Thomas, G. C. Gilmore, and D. L. Wilson, “Perceptual comparison of pulsed and continuous fluoroscopy,” Med. Phys. 21, 245–256 (1994).
  2. P. Xue and D. L. Wilson, “Pulsed fluoroscopy detectability from interspersed adaptive forced choice measurements,” Med. Phys. 23, 1833–1843 (1996).
  3. P. Xue, C. W. Thomas, G. C. Gilmore, and D. L. Wilson, “An adaptive reference/test paradigm: Application to pulsed fluoroscopy perception,” Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 30, 332–348 (1998).
  4. R. Aufrichtig, C. Thomas, P. Xue, and D. L. Wilson, “Model for perception of pulsed fluoroscopy image sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3167–3176 (1994).
  5. D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, P. Xue, and R. Aufrichtig, “Perceived noise versus display noise in temporally filtered image sequences,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 490–495 (1996).
  6. K. N. Jabri and D. L. Wilson, “Detection improvement in spatially filtered x-ray fluoroscopy image sequences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 742–749 (1999).
  7. P. Xue and D. L. Wilson, “Detection of moving objects in pulsed x-ray fluoroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 375–388 (1998).
  8. P. Xue and D. L. Wilson, “Effects of motion blurring in x-ray fluoroscopy,” Med. Phys. 25, 587–599 (1998).
  9. R. N. McDonough and A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).
  10. L. B. Stelmach and P. J. Hearty, “Requirements for static and dynamic spatial resolution in advanced television systems: a psychophysical evaluation,” J. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng. 100, 5–9 (1991).
  11. P. J. Hearty, “Achieving and confirming optimum image quality,” in Digital Images and Human Vision, A. B. Watson, ed. (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).
  12. J. H. D. M. Westerink and C. Teunissen, “Perceived sharpness in moving images,” in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging: Models and Applications, B. E. Rogowitz and J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE 1249, 78–87 (1990).
  13. A. E. Burgess and H. Ghandeharian, “Visual signal detection. I. Ability to use phase information,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 900–905 (1984).
  14. M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Role of knowledge in human visual temporal integration in spatiotemporal noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1960–1968 (1996).
  15. D. J. Lasley and T. E. Cohn, “Detection of a luminance increment: effect of temporal uncertainty,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 845–850 (1981).
  16. A. C. Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 9th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1996).
  17. A. F. Fuchs, “Saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements in the monkey,” J. Physiol. (London) 191, 609–631 (1967).
  18. R. W. Baloh, W. E. Kumley, A. W. Sills, V. Honrubia, and H. R. Konrad, “Quantitative measurement of smooth pursuit eye movements,” Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 85, 111–119 (1976).
  19. L. Schalen, “Quantification of tracking eye movements in normal subjects,” Acta Oto-Laryngol. 90, 404–413 (1980).
  20. L. D. Loo, K. Doi, and C. E. Metz, “Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 4. Effect of unsharp masking on the detectability of simple patterns,” Med. Phys. 12, 209–214 (1985).
  21. A. E. Burgess, “Statistically defined backgrounds: performance of a modified nonprewhitening observer model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1237–1242 (1994).
  22. G. S. Lisberger, E. J. Morris, and L. Tychsen, “Visual motion processing and sensory-motor integration for smooth pursuit eye movements,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 68, 453–461 (1987).
  23. J. G. Robson, “Spatial and temporal contrast-sensitivity functions of the human visual system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141–1142 (1966).
  24. D. H. Kelly, “Retinal inhomogeneity. I. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 107–113 (1984).
  25. D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. II. Stabilized spatio-temporal threshold surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1340–1349 (1979).
  26. P. Xue, R. Aufrichtig, and D. L. Wilson, “Detectability of moving objects in fluoroscopy,” in Medical Imaging 1996: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE 2712, 2–8 (1996).
  27. A. E. Burgess, “Comparison of receiver operating characteristic and forced choice observer performance measurement methods,” Med. Phys. 22, 643–655 (1995).
  28. D. M. Green and J. A. Swets, Signal Detection Theory and Psychophysics (Wiley, New York, 1966).
  29. H. Fujita, K. Doi, and M. L. Giger, “Investigation of basic imaging properties in digital radiography. 6. MTFs of II-TV digital imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 12, 713–719 (1985).
  30. A. E. Burgess, “Visual signal detection. III. On Bayesian use of prior knowledge and cross correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1498–1507 (1985).
  31. R. M. Manjeshwar and D. L. Wilson, “Effect of spatial location uncertainty on human observer performance in x-ray fluoroscopy noise,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 26, Suppl. 1, S–13 (1998).
  32. H. L. Kundel, C. F. Nodine, L. Toto, and S. Lauver, “A circle cue enhances detection of simulated masses on mammogram backgrounds,” in Medical Imaging: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE 3036, 81–84 (1997).
  33. D. L. Wilson, K. N. Jabri, and P. Xue, “Modeling human visual detection of low-contrast objects in fluoroscopy image sequences,” in Medical Imaging 1997: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE 3036, 21–30 (1997).
  34. H. Collewijn and E. P. Tamminga, “Human smooth and saccadic eye movements during voluntary pursuit of different target motions on different backgrounds,” J. Physiol. (London) 351, 217–250 (1984).
  35. M. Livingstone and D. Hubel, “Segregation of form, color, movement, and depth: anatomy, physiology, and perception,” Science 240, 740–749 (1988).
  36. J. S. Whiting, M. P. Eckstein, C. A. Morioka, and N. L. Eigler, “Effect of additive noise, signal contrast, and feature motion on visual detection in structured noise,” in Medical Imaging 1996: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE 2712, 26–38 (1996).
  37. M. P. Eckstein, J. S. Whiting, and J. P. Thomas, “Detection and contrast discrimination of moving signals in uncorrelated Gaussian noise,” in Medical Imaging 1996: Image Perception, H. L. Kundel, ed., Proc. SPIE 2712, 9–25 (1996).
  38. N. L. Eigler, M. P. Eckstein, K. N. Mahrer, and J. S. Whiting, “Improving detection of coronary morphological features from digital angiograms: effect of stenosis stabilization display,” Circulation 89, 2700–2709 (1994).
  39. J. P. Flipse, G. D. Wildt, M. Rodenburg, C. J. Keemink, and P. G. M. Knol, “Contrast sensitivity for oscillating sine wave gratings during ocular fixation and pursuit,” Vision Res. 28, 819–826 (1988).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited