OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 16, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1999
  • pp: 1026–1033

Equivalent blur as a function of spurious response of a sampled imaging system: application to character recognition

Ronald G. Driggers, Richard Vollmerhausen, and Barbara O'Kane  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 16, Issue 5, pp. 1026-1033 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.16.001026


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (585 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Image sampling effects have been variously quantified as aliased signal, spatial signal, and spatial noise. However, a relationship between these characteristics and human object recognition has not been established in a coherent, mathematical form. We present a heuristic study that characterizes the performance degradation that is due to the spurious response of a sampled imaging system as an effective increase in system blur. A character recognition experiment was performed in which 20 observers responded to 3500 character pairs of blur and sample spacing. A baseline was created where the probability of character recognition was determined as a function of blur without sampling. The sampled characters were then compared with this baseline so that the effect of sampling on character recognition could be determined. Finally, an increase in blur was established as a function of spurious response, which describes the overall effect of sampling on observer character recognition.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.3000) Imaging systems : Image quality assessment

Citation
Ronald G. Driggers, Richard Vollmerhausen, and Barbara O'Kane, "Equivalent blur as a function of spurious response of a sampled imaging system: application to character recognition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1026-1033 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-16-5-1026


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. S. Park and R. Hazra, “Aliasing as noise: a quantitative and qualitative assessment,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing IV, G. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE 1969, 54–65 (1993).
  2. T. Meitzler and G. Gerhart, “Spatial aliasing effects in ground vehicle IR imagery,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing III, G. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE 1689, 226–241 (1992).
  3. P. Owen and J. Dawson, “Resolving the differences in oversampled and undersampled imaging sensors: updated target acquisition modeling strategies for staring and scanning FLIR systems,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing III, G. Holst, ed, Proc. SPIE 1689, 251–261 (1992).
  4. F. Huck, S. Park, D. Speray, and N. Halyo, “Information density and efficiency of two-dimensional sampled imagery,” in Image Quality, P. S. Cheatham, ed., Proc. SPIE 310, 36–42 (1981).
  5. J. Kruthers, T. Williams, G. O’Brien, K. Le, and J. Howe, “A Study of the Effects of Focal Plane Array Design Parameters on ATR Performance,” in Architecture, Hardware, and Forward-Looking Infrared Issues in Automatic Object Recognition, L. Garn and L. Graceffo, eds., Proc. SPIE 1957, 165–181 (1993).
  6. S. Park and R. Schowengerdt, “Image sampling, reconstruction, and the effect of sample-scene phasing,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3142–3151 (1986).
  7. W. Wittenstein, J. Fontanella, A. Newberry, and J. Baars, “The definition and the OTF and the measurement of aliasing for sampled imaging systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 41–50 (1982).
  8. R. Vollmerhausen, “Impact of display modulation transfer function on the quality of sampled imagery,” in Aerospace/Defense Sensing and Controls, G. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE 2743, 12–22 (1996).
  9. R. Vollmerhausen, “Display of sampled imagery,” in EO Imaging Systems and Modeling, L. Biberman, ed. (Ontar Corp., Andover, Mass., in press).
  10. J. D’Agostino, M. Friedman, R. LaFollette, and M. Crenshaw, “An experimental study of the effects of sampling on FLIR performance,” NVESD Rep. (Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Ft. Belvoir, Va., 1990).
  11. J. Howe, L. Scott, S. Pletz, J. Horger, and J. Mark, “Thermal model improvement through perception testing,” NVESD Rep. (Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Ft. Belvoir, Va., 1989).
  12. J. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 60–62.
  13. D. F. Barbe and S. B. Campana, “Imaging arrays using the charge coupled concept,” in Advances in Image Pickup and Display, B. Kazan, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 3, pp. 171–296.
  14. Instructions for the Use of the RIT Alphanumeric Resolution Test Object (Graphic Arts Research Center, Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y., 1980).
  15. G. Waldman and J. Wooton, Electro-optical Systems Performance Modeling (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1993), pp. 170–172.
  16. R. Vollmerhausen, R. Driggers, and B. O’Kane, “The influence of sampling on recognition and identification performance,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited