OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 16, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1999
  • pp: 1521–1530

Color constancy: the role of image surfaces in illuminant adjustment

Karl-Heinz Bäuml  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 16, Issue 7, pp. 1521-1530 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.16.001521


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (250 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Previous studies on color constancy have found that the color appearance of a test surface varies both as a function of the illumination in the image and as a function of the image surfaces. To what extent these two effects interact is investigated here. To address this issue theoretically, a restrictive von Kries model is formulated that assumes that the scaling of the cone signals in response to an illuminant change does not depend on image surfaces. Subjects saw CRT simulations of illuminated surfaces and, for a number of different illuminants and surface collections, adjusted a test light so that it appeared achromatic and had a certain brightness. Consistent with previous studies, the settings showed a high degree of illuminant adjustment and also showed an adjustment to the surfaces in the image. The proposed von Kries model provided a good, although not perfect, description of the data, thus indicating that the illuminant adjustment was largely the same under the different surface collections. These results together with those from several previous studies suggest that image surfaces play only a minor role in the illuminant adjustment of our visual system.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.1690) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color
(330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision
(330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling

History
Original Manuscript: November 9, 1998
Revised Manuscript: March 15, 1999
Manuscript Accepted: March 15, 1999
Published: July 1, 1999

Citation
Karl-Heinz Bäuml, "Color constancy: the role of image surfaces in illuminant adjustment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1521-1530 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-16-7-1521


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K.-H. Bäuml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. K.-H. Bäuml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color-matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. I. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. E.-J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Photoreceptor sensitivity changes explain color appearance shifts induced by large uniform backgrounds in dichoptic matching,” Vision Res. 35, 239–254 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Fairchild, P. Lennie, “Chromatic adaptation to natural and incandescent illuminants,” Vision Res. 32, 2077–2085 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. Nagel, ed. (Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany, 1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–279.
  8. J. Werner, J. Walraven, “Effect of chromatic adaptation on the achromatic locus: the role of contrast, luminance and background color,” Vision Res. 22, 929–943 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K.-H. Bäuml, “Color appearance: effects of illuminant changes under different surface collections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 531–543 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object color perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980). [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Dannemiller, “Computational approaches to color constancy: adaptive and ontogenetic considerations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 255–266 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. H. Land, J. J. McCann, “Lightness and retinex theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1–11 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, T. H. Taylor, “Quantitative studies in retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color Mondrian’ experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445–458 (1976). [CrossRef]
  14. R. O. Brown, D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Jenness, S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Kraft, D. H. Brainard, “Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 307–312 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Zaidi, B. Spehar, J. S. DeBonet, “Adaptation to textured chromatic fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 23–32 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307–325 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Helson, W. C. Michels, “The effect of chromatic adaptation on achromaticity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 1025–1032 (1948). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Irtel, “PXL: a library for psychological experiments on IBM PC type computers,” Spatial Vis. 10, 467–469 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  22. D. B. Judd, D. L. MacAdam, G. W. Wyszecki, “Spectral distribution of typical daylight as a function of correlated color temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031 (1964). [CrossRef]
  23. L. T. Maloney, “Evaluation of linear models of surface spectral reflectance with small numbers of parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1673–1683 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. The surfaces employed in this study spanned most of the range of luminance and chromaticities that could be achieved on the monitor under the three experimental illuminants. As with most monitors, this range of chromaticity coordinates does not approach the spectrum locus.
  25. B. A. Wandell, Foundations of Vision (Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., 1995).
  26. V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 700 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. L. Sachtler, Q. Zaidi, “The efficacy of chromatic and luminance signals in discrimination tasks involving memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 877–894 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: patterns with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. In this method two Euclidean distances are actually measured: the distance between the test surfaces and perfectly color-constant matches (u), and the distance between perfectly color-constant matches and the matches that the subject set under the test illuminant. On the basis of these distances the term 1-v/u is then interpreted as a constancy index. The distances were computed with CIELUV metric with the color coordinates of the respective test illuminant as the nominally white light.21
  30. K.-H. Bäuml, B. A. Wandell, “Color appearance of mixture gratings,” Vision Res. 36, 2849–2864 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. B. Poirson, B. A. Wandell, “The appearance of colored patterns: pattern-color separability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2458–2470 (1993). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, E. Economou, “An anchoring theory of lightness perception,” Psychol. Rev. (to be published).
  33. I found mean errors of 2.56 units (AS) and 3.36 units (GR) for the difference-based independence hypothesis compared with mean errors of 2.05 units (AS) and 2.20 units (GR) for the von Kries–based independence hypothesis (see Subsection 3.C). The fact that there is a clearer difference between the two hypotheses for subject GR than for subject AS has to do with the fact that subject GR used a much higher brightness level for her matches than subject AS (see Table 1).
  34. The effect of image surfaces on subjects’ achromatic settings is smaller in Brainard’s study than in the present one. This difference might have to do with the fact that in the present study subjects adjusted the test surface to appear achromatic and to have a certain brightness level, whereas in Brainard’s study subjects did achromatic settings with a fixed luminance level. Indeed, the effect of image surfaces on the settings’ chromaticity coordinates was also fairly small in the present experiment (see Subsection 3.A).
  35. J. Schirillo, A. Reeves, L. Arend, “Perceived lightness, but not brightness, of achromatic surfaces depends on perceived depth information,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 82–90 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. P. Lucassen, J. Walraven, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectances,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” M.S. thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 1992).
  38. J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. R. Mausfeld, R. Niederee, “An inquiry into the relational concepts of colour, based on incremental principles of colour coding for minimal relational stimuli,” Perception 22, 427–462 (1993). [CrossRef]
  40. E. J. Chichilnisky, B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the ON and OFF pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996). [CrossRef]
  41. L. Arend, A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. I. Kuriki, K. Uchikawa, “Limitations of surface-color and apparant-color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1622–1636 (1996). [CrossRef]
  43. S. M. C. Nascimento, D. H. Foster, “Detecting natural changes in cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395–1402 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited