OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 18, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2001
  • pp: 205–215

Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order

Kim L. Tan, Stephen T. Warr, Ilias G. Manolis, Timothy D. Wilkinson, Maura M. Redmond, William A. Crossland, Robert J. Mears, and Brian Robertson  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 1, pp. 205-215 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.18.000205


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (727 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

An analysis of dynamic phase-only holograms, described by fractional notation and recorded onto a pixelated spatial light modulator (SLM) in a reconfigurable optical beam-steering switch, is presented. The phase quantization and arrangement of the phase states and the SLM pixelation and dead-space effects are decoupled, expressed analytically, and simulated numerically. The phase analysis with a skip–rotate rule reveals the location and intensity of each diffraction order at the digital replay stage. The optical reconstruction of the holograms recorded onto SLM’s with rectangular pixel apertures entails sinc-squared scaling, which further reduces the intensity of each diffraction order. With these two factors taken into account, the highest values of the nonuniform first-order diffraction efficiencies are expected to be 33%, 66%, and 77% for two-, four-, and and eight-level one-dimensional holograms with a 90% linear pixel fill factor. The variation of the first-order diffraction efficiency and the relative replay intensities were verified to within 1 dB by performing the optical reconstruction of binary phase-only holograms recorded onto a ferroelectric liquid crystal on a silicon SLM.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(090.2890) Holography : Holographic optical elements
(100.5090) Image processing : Phase-only filters
(120.5060) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase modulation
(230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators

History
Original Manuscript: October 19, 1999
Revised Manuscript: June 20, 2000
Manuscript Accepted: June 20, 2000
Published: January 1, 2001

Citation
Kim L. Tan, Stephen T. Warr, Ilias G. Manolis, Timothy D. Wilkinson, Maura M. Redmond, William A. Crossland, Robert J. Mears, and Brian Robertson, "Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. II. Routing holograms with predictable location and intensity of each diffraction order," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 205-215 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-1-205


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. L. Tan, W. A. Crossland, R. J. Mears, “Dynamic holography for optical interconnections. I. Noise floor of low-cross-talk holographic switches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 195–204 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik (Stuttgart) 31, 95–104 (1970).
  3. E. O. Brigham, The Fast Fourier Transform (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1974).
  4. J. A. Cox, “Diffractive efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1211, 116–124 (1990). [CrossRef]
  5. P. D. Gianino, C. L. Woods, “General treatment of spatial light modulator dead-zone effects on optical correlation. I. Computer simulations.” “II. Mathematical analysis,”Appl. Opt. 32, 6527–6535, 6536–6541 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).
  7. M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, D. W. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, “Iterative encoding of high-efficiency holograms for generation of spot arrays,” Opt. Lett. 14, 479–481 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Weissbach, F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital phase holograms: coding and quantization with an error diffusion concept,” Opt. Commun. 72, 37–41 (1989). [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Davis, S. W. Connely, G. W. Bach, R. A. Lilly, D. M. Cottrell, “Programmable optical interconnections with large fan-out capability using the magneto-optic spatial light modulator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 102–104 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Dragone, “An N×N optical multiplexer using a planar arrangement of two star couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 812–815 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Synthetic diffractive elements for optical interconnection,” Opt. Comput. Process 2, 221–242 (1992).
  13. E. G. Steward, Fourier Optics: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), pp. 106–115.
  14. Reconfigurable Optical Switches for Aerospace and Telecommunications Systems (ROSES), , was a collaborative Department of Trade and Industry–Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Link Photonics project of British Aerospace, Central Research Laboratories, the Cambridge University Engineering Department, King’s College London, Northern Telecom, and Thomas Swan & Co. Ltd. (TS) and was managed by TS (Cambridge University Engineering Department, Cambridge). The binary SLM’s developed under this program contain a 6-mm-tall linear array of 540×1pixels at 20-μm pixel pitch.
  15. CDRR materials were developed at Hull University in the .
  16. M. M. Redmond, “Alignment and preliminary LC assessment of binary SLM W2/D22,” ROSES-CUED 8th quarterly rep. (Cambridge U. Engineering Department, Cambridge, UK, 1998), pp. 6–7.
  17. P. Berthele, B. Fracasso, J. L. de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, “Design and characterization of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator for a polarization-insensitive optical space switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5461–5468 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited