OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 18, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2001
  • pp: 2419–2429

Increments and decrements in color constancy

Karl-Heinz Bäuml  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 10, pp. 2419-2429 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.18.002419


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (188 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The present study examines whether increment–decrement asymmetries reported in a number of recent center–surround situations occur in more complex images as well. Subjects saw the CRT simulation of a whole uniformly illuminated array of foreground surfaces presented against a large background surface and, for a number of different viewing contexts, made achromatic settings over a wide range of luminance values. Three results emerged. First, subjects’ achromatic loci did not fall on a single straight line in color space but rather fell on two separate lines intersecting at some point in this space. Second, the intersection points were not identical to but dependent largely on background color and showed only small effects of foreground colors. Third, cone signals that were decremental relative to the intersection point were more responsive to illuminant changes than cone signals that were incremental, the latter additionally showing some variation with foreground colors. The results are interpreted in terms of increment–decrement asymmetries. They suggest that these asymmetries occur in more complex images as well.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.5020) Vision, color, and visual optics : Perception psychology

Citation
Karl-Heinz Bäuml, "Increments and decrements in color constancy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2419-2429 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-10-2419


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. D. H. Brainard and B. A. Wandell, “Asymmetric color-matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433–1448 (1992).
  2. K.-H. Bäuml, “Color appearance: effects of illuminant changes under different surface collections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 531–543 (1994).
  3. M. P. Lucassen and J. Walraven, “Color constancy under natural and artificial illumination,” Vision Res. 36, 2699–2711 (1996).
  4. M. E. Gorzynski, “Achromatic perception in color image displays,” M. S. thesis (Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, 1992).
  5. D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307–325 (1998).
  6. K.-H. Bäuml, “Color constancy: the role of image surfaces in illuminant adjustment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1521–1530 (1999).
  7. P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America Washington, D.C., 1996).
  8. K.-H. Bäuml, “Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261–271 (1995).
  9. J. Walraven, “Colour signals from incremental and decremental light stimuli,” Vision Res. 17, 71–76 (1977).
  10. J. Krauskopf, “Discrimination and detection of changes in luminance,” Vision Res. 20, 671–677 (1980).
  11. T. W. White, G. E. Irvin, and M. C. Williams, “Asymmetry in the brightness and darkness Broca–Sulzer effects,” Vision Res. 20, 723–726 (1980).
  12. R. Mausfeld and R. Niederee, “An inquiry into the relational concepts of colour, based on incremental principles of colour coding for minimal relational stimuli,” Perception 22, 427–462 (1993).
  13. E. J. Chichilnisky and B. A. Wandell, “Seeing gray through the ON and OFF pathways,” Visual Neurosci. 13, 591–596 (1996).
  14. E. J. Chichilnisky and B. A. Wandell, “Trichromatic opponent color classification,” Vision Res. 39, 3444–3458 (1999).
  15. P. Whittle, “Increments and decrements: luminance discrimination,” Vision Res. 26, 1677–1691 (1986).
  16. P. Whittle, “Contrast brightness and ordinary seeing,” in Lightness, Brightness, and Transparency, A. L. Gilchrist, ed. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N. J., 1994), pp. 111–157.
  17. J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. Nagel, ed. (Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany, 1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–279.
  18. P. B. Delahunt and D. H. Brainard, “Control of chromatic adaptation: signals from separate cone classes interact,” Vision Res. 40, 2885–2903 (2000).
  19. D. B. Judd, “Hue, saturation, and lightness of surface colors with chromatic illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 2–32 (1940).
  20. H. Helson, “Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination,” J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 439–476 (1938).
  21. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  22. V. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 700 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
  23. When using the CIELUV metric21 one has to define a nominally white light for a given context. For this white light I used the color coordinates of the respective illuminated background surface. Additionally, I repeated the analyses using other definitions of the nominally white light. Although the absolute error values varied with the choice of the nominally white light, the pattern of results remained the same. The pattern of results did not even change when the analyses were run in cone space.
  24. For the computation of the cone ratios, incremental and decremental cone signals were coded as differences relative to the level estimate. The incremental cone signals thus were assigned positive coordinates, and the decremental ones were assigned negative coordinates.
  25. Both the experimental illuminants and the experimental surfaces were described by three-dimensional linear models. On the basis of this type of modeling, for each illuminant ε a so-called light transformation matrix, Δε, can be defined. This 3×3 matrix provides a mapping from each 3×1 column vector ρ, which represents a surface, to the cone absorptions that result from this surface when rendered under illuminant ε. I computed the light transformation matrix for each of the three experimental illuminants and used these matrices to compute perfectly color constant settings (see Wandell, 26 pp. 306–308).
  26. B. A. Wandell, Foundations of Vision (Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., 1995).
  27. L. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, and R. Goldstein, “Simultaneous color constancy: patterns with diverse Munsell values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661–672 (1991).
  28. L. Arend and B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993).
  29. J. W. Jenness and S. K. Shevell, “Color appearance with sparse chromatic context,” Vision Res. 35, 797–805 (1995).
  30. R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors,” Curr. Biol. 7, 844–849 (1997).
  31. J. A. Schirillo, “Surround articulation. I. brightness judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 793–803 (1999).
  32. D. L. Dannemiller, “Computational approaches to color constancy: adaptive and ontogenetic considerations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 255–266 (1989).
  33. E. H. Land and J. J. McCann, “Lightness and retinex theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1–11 (1971).
  34. In Experiment 1 the surfaces of collection CN were in more than 80% of the cases pure decrements relative to the darker background BL and in all cases pure decrements relative to the brighter background BH. In Experiment 2 the surfaces of the single-surface collections were in more than 90% of the cases pure decrements relative to background surface BM. In many of the cases in which the foreground surfaces were not pure decrements, they were increments only in one or two of the three cone signals. Also, whenever the cone signals were incremental relative to background their coordinates were only moderately larger than the coordinates of the background field.
  35. D. H. Brainard, W. A. Brunt, and J. M. Speigle, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 1. Asymmetric matches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2091–2110 (1997).
  36. L. Arend and A. Reeves, “Simultaneous color constancy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743–1751 (1986).
  37. K.-H. Bäuml, “Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant,” Vision Res. 39, 1531–1550 (1999).
  38. J. A. Schirillo, “Surround articulation. II. Brightness judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 804–811 (1999).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited