OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 18, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2001
  • pp: 265–272

Aging of the human lens: changes in lens shape at zero-diopter accommodation

Jane F. Koretz, Christopher A. Cook, and Paul L. Kaufman  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 265-272 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (256 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Scheimpflug photographs of the zero-diopter-accommodated anterior segments of 100 human subjects, aged 18 to 70 yr and evenly spaced over this range, were digitized and analyzed to characterize lens and lens nucleus shape as a function of age by the Hough transform and other image analysis methods. Anterior and posterior lens surface curves exhibit a decrease in radius of curvature with increasing age, in qualitative but not quantitative agreement with the earlier observations of Brown [Exp. Eye Res. 19, 175 (1974)]. In contrast, the shape of the lens nuclear boundaries changes little with age. Overall lens volume at zero diopters increases with age, but the volume of the lens nucleus remains unchanged. The lens center of mass moves anteriorly with increasing age, as does the central clear region of the lens. Although these data sets were found to be more variable than those of Brown, the complementary variability of other factors, such as anterior chamber depth, for each subject leads to a very high statistical correlation between lens shape and lens location relative to the cornea. This supports the finding of previous work that image formation on the retina for a given individual results from the multifactorial balancing of related factors.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
(330.4300) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision system - noninvasive assessment
(330.5370) Vision, color, and visual optics : Physiological optics

Original Manuscript: May 15, 2000
Revised Manuscript: August 10, 2000
Manuscript Accepted: August 10, 2000
Published: February 1, 2001

Jane F. Koretz, Christopher A. Cook, and Paul L. Kaufman, "Aging of the human lens: changes in lens shape at zero-diopter accommodation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 265-272 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. J. Bron, G. F. Vrensen, J. Koretz, G. Maraini, J. J. Harding, “The ageing lens,” Ophthalmologica 214, 86–104 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Brown, “The change in lens curvature with age,” Exp. Eye Res. 19, 175–183 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Brown, “An advanced slit-image camera,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 56, 624–631 (1972). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Brown, “The change in shape and internal form of the lens of the eye on accommodation,” Exp. Eye Res. 15, 441–459 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Brown, “The shape of the lens equator,” Exp. Eye Res. 19, 571–576 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, N. P. Brown, “Analysis of human crystalline lens curvature as a function of accommodative state and age,” Vision Res. 24, 1141–1151 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. F. Koretz, C. A. Cook, J. R. Kuszak, “The zones of discontinuity in the human lens: development and distribution with age,” Vision Res. 34, 2955–2962 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, “Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye. 1: Evaluation of in vivo measurement techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1097–1102 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. Koretz, P. L. Kaufman, M. W. Neider, P. A. Goeckner, “Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye—aging of the anterior segment,” Vision Res. 29, 1685–1692 (1989). [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Koretz, C. A. Cook, P. L. Kaufman, “Accommodation and presbyopia in the human eye. Changes in the anterior segment and crystalline lens with focus,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 569–578 (1997).
  11. C. A. Cook, J. F. Koretz, A. Pfahnl, J. Hyun, P. L. Kaufman, “Aging of the human crystallin lens and anterior segment,” Vision Res. 34, 2945–2954 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. R. Kuszak, Department of Pathology and Ophthalmology, Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke’s Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, Ill. 60612 (personal communication, 1994).
  13. J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “How the human eye focuses,” Sci. Am. 259, 92–99 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. F. Koretz, G. H. Handelman, “The ‘lens paradox’ and image formation in accommodating human eyes,” in The Lens: Transparency and Cataract, G. Duncan, ed., Topics in Aging Research in Europe (Annual Vol.)6, 57–64 (1986).
  15. G. Smith, D. A. Atchison, B. K. Pierscionek, “Modeling the power of the aging human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2111–2117 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. K. Pierscionek, D. Y. Chan, “Refractive index gradient of human lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 822–829 (1989). [CrossRef]
  17. B. Pierscionek, “What we know and understand about presbyopia,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 76, 83–91 (1993). [CrossRef]
  18. C. A. Cook, J. F. Koretz, “Acquisition of the curves of the human crystalline lens from slit lamp images: an application of the Hough transform,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2088–2099 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. A. Cook, J. F. Koretz, “Methods to obtain quantitative parametric descriptions of the optical surfaces of the human crystalline lens from Scheimpflug slit-lamp iamges. I. Image processing methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1473–1485 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, “Continuous gradient index and shell models of the human lens,” Vision Res. 35, 2529–2538 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Popiolek Masajada, “Numerical study of the influence of the shell structure of the crystalline lens on the refractive properties of the human eye,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 19, 41–49 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. G. Smith, B. K. Pierscionek, D. A. Atchison, “The optical modelling of the human lens,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 11, 359–369 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. T. Smith, R. C. Smith, N. A. Brown, A. J. Bron, M. L. Harris, “Changes in light scatter and width measurements from the human lens cortex with age,” Eye 6, 55–59 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. R. Kuszak, “The ultrastructure of epithelial and fiber cells in the crystalline lens,” Int. Rev. Cytol. 163, 305–350 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989).
  26. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).
  27. S. A. Strenk, J. L. Semmlow, L. M. Strenk, P. Muñoz, J. Grönlund-Jacob, J. K. DeMarco, “Age-related changes in human ciliary muscle and lens: a magnetic resonance imaging study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1162–1169 (1999).
  28. V. L. Taylor, K. J. al-Ghoul, C. W. Lane, V. A. Davis, J. R. Kuszak, M. J. Costello, “Morphology of the normal human lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 1396–1410 (1996).
  29. J. R. Kuszak, K. L. Peterson, J. G. Sivak, K. L. Herbert, “The interrelationship of lens anatomy and optical quality. II. Primate lenses,” Exp. Eye Res. 59, 521–535 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. F. Koretz, A. Rogot, P. L. Kaufman, “Physiological strategies for emmetropia,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 105–118 (1995);Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 93, 118–122 (1995), discussion. [PubMed]
  31. A. Sorsby, B. Benjamin, J. B. Davey, M. Sheridan, J. M. Tanner, Emmetropia and Its Aberrations (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1957).
  32. A. Sorsby, B. Benjamin, M. Sheridan, Refraction and Its Components during the Growth of the Eye from the Age of Three (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1961).
  33. A. Sorsby, B. Benjamin, A. G. Bennett, “Steiger on refraction: a reappraisal,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 65, 805–811 (1981). [CrossRef]
  34. N. P. Brown, J. F. Koretz, A. J. Bron, “The development and maintenance of emmetropia,” Eye 13, 83–92 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited