Local optimization of surface-relief profiles of diffractive high-numerical-aperture imaging lenses is considered in the 1:1 imaging geometry for both linearly polarized illumination and unpolarized illumination by using the transition points of a four-level grating as design parameters. In the imaging geometry the optimized surface profiles differ considerably from those optimized previously for focusing or collimation geometries. Binary surface-relief grating structures are shown to provide high local diffraction efficiencies (up to 95%) in the outer regions of a high-numerical-aperture diffractive imaging lens because of the near-Littrow configuration.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: June 7, 2000
Revised Manuscript: October 10, 2000
Manuscript Accepted: October 10, 2000
Published: March 1, 2001
Kasimir Blomstedt, Eero Noponen, and Jari Turunen, "Surface-profile optimization of diffractive 1:1 imaging lenses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 521-525 (2001)