OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 18, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 2001
  • pp: 565–572

Measuring and modeling optical diffraction from subwavelength features

Xu Wang, Jeffrey Mason, Milton Latta, Timothy C. Strand, David Marx, and Demetri Psaltis  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 565-572 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (311 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a technique for studying scattering from subwavelength features. A simple scatterometer was developed to measure the scattering from the single-submicrometer, subwavelength features generated with a focused ion beam system. A model that can describe diffraction from subwavelength features with arbitrary profiles is also presented and shown to agree quite well with the experimental measurements. The model is used to demonstrate ways in which the aspect ratios of subwavelength ridges and trenches can be obtained from scattering data and how ridges can be distinguished from trenches over a wide range of aspect ratios. We show that some earlier results of studies on distinguishing pits from particles do not extend to low-aspect-ratio features.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(120.4630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical inspection
(120.5820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Scattering measurements
(290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces

Original Manuscript: January 5, 2000
Revised Manuscript: August 8, 2000
Manuscript Accepted: August 8, 2000
Published: March 1, 2001

Xu Wang, Jeffrey Mason, Milton Latta, Timothy C. Strand, David Marx, and Demetri Psaltis, "Measuring and modeling optical diffraction from subwavelength features," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 565-572 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. S. Marx, D. Psaltis, “Polarization quadrature measurement of subwavelength diffracting structures,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6434–6440 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Marx, D. Psaltis, “Optical diffraction of focused spots and subwavelength structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1268–1278 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. W.-C. Liu, M. W. Kowarz, “Vector diffraction from subwavelength optical disk structures: two-dimensional near-field profiles,” Opt. Express 2, 191–197 (1998), http:llepubs.osa.org/opticsexpress . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. H. Yeh, L. Li, M. Mansuripur, “Vector diffraction and polarization effects in an optical disk system,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6983–6988 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. A. Eremin, J. C. Stover, N. V. Orlov, “Modeling scatter from silicon wafer features based on discrete sources method,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1296–1304 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Scheer, J. C. Stover, V. I. Ivahknenko, “Comparison of models and measurements of scatter from surface bound particles,” in Flatness, Roughness, and Discrete Defects Characterization for Computer Disks, Wafers, and Flat Panel Displays II, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE3275, 102–111 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Haidner, D. Dias, L. L. Wang, T. Tschudi, “Binary subwavelength structures/resonance gratings as polarization elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1347–1361 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. J.-J. Greffet, F.-R. Ladan, “Comparison between theoretical and experimental scattering of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave by a two-dimensional obstacle on a surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1261–1269 (1991). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Levy, L. Shingher, J. Shamir, Y. Leviatan, “Step height determination by a focused Gaussian beam,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3303–3319 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Stover, M. Bernt, “A multiple particle technique for determination of differential scattering cross-section of very small surface bound particles,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 108–112 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. A. T. De Hoop, Modern Topics in Electromagnetics and Antennas, PPL Conference Publication, Vol. 13, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., Stevenage, England (1977).
  12. N. J. Cronin, Microwave and Optical Waveguides (Institute of Physics, London, 1995).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited