OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 18, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 2001
  • pp: 678–688

Evanescent and propagating electromagnetic fields in scattering from point-dipole structures

Tero Setälä, Matti Kaivola, and Ari T. Friberg  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 678-688 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1207 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We investigate the propagating and evanescent field contributions in the scattering of an electromagnetic field from a collection of interacting electric point dipoles. Having applications of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) in mind, we study three different geometries of dipoles placed close to a bulk surface. One of them is chosen to allow a direct comparison with the results recently put forward in the literature [J. Mod. Opt. 44, 327 (1997)] and to point out the discrepancies in the near zone between the field decompositions applied in that paper and in our work. The other two geometries have been selected to illustrate SNOM action in the illumination and collection modes. Within the point-dipole model we investigate the effects of the probe-dipole polarization on the propagating and evanescent fields in the sample–probe system during the scanning of the probe at different heights above the sample.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

Original Manuscript: November 4, 1999
Revised Manuscript: October 10, 2000
Manuscript Accepted: October 10, 2000
Published: March 1, 2001

Tero Setälä, Matti Kaivola, and Ari T. Friberg, "Evanescent and propagating electromagnetic fields in scattering from point-dipole structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 678-688 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics: microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 257, 189–195 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Courjon, C. Bainier, “Near-field microscopy and near-field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ohtsu, H. Hori, Near-Field Nano-Optics: From Basic Principles to Nano-Fabrication and Nano-Photonics (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1999).
  4. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Image formation in near-field optics,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133–237 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Vigoureux, C. Girard, D. Courjon, “General principles of scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1039–1041 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Girard, C. Joachim, S. Gauthier, “The physics of the near-field,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893–938 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Setälä, A. T. Friberg, M. Kaivola, “Decomposition of the point-dipole field into homogeneous and evanescent parts,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 1200–1206 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Xiao, “A study of resolution in optical microscopy: near and far field,” Opt. Commun. 132, 403–409 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Xiao, “Evanescent field coupling of dipole to a surface: configurational resonance at long distances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 258, 363–368 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Xiao, “On near-field scanning optical microscopy. Homogeneous and evanescent radiation,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 327–344 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Xiao, “Polarization effects in reflection scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 136, 213–218 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Xiao, “Cutting off the diffraction: a numerical solution in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3125–3127 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Xiao, A. Zayats, J. Siqueiros, “Scattering of surface-plasmon polaritons by dipoles near a surface: optical near-field localization,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 1824–1837 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Xiao, “Evanescent fields do contribute to the far field,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 729–733 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. E. Wolf, J. T. Foley, “Do evanescent waves contribute to the far field,” Opt. Lett. 23, 16–18 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. O. Keller, “Attached and radiated electromagnetic fields of an electric point dipole,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 835–847 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Shchegrov, P. S. Carney, “Far-field contribution of evanescent modes to the electromagnetic Green tensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2583–2584 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. B. Labani, C. Girard, D. Courjon, D. Van Labeke, “Optical interaction between a dielectric tip and a nanometric lattice: implications for near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 936–943 (1990). [CrossRef]
  21. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optical spectroscopy of a surface at the nanometer scale: a theoretical study in real space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994). [CrossRef]
  22. L. Novotny, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. L. Novotny, “Allowed and forbidden light in near-field optics. II. Interacting dipolar particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 105–113 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. B. T. Draine, P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1491–1499 (1994). [CrossRef]
  25. P. C. Chaumet, A. Rahmani, F. de Fornel, J.-P. Dufour, “Evanescent light scattering: the validity of the dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2310–2315 (1998). [CrossRef]
  26. J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, V. Sandoghdar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C.-T. Tai, Dyadic Green’s Functions in Electromagnetic Theory (Intext, Scranton, PA, 1971).
  28. P. de Vries, D. V. van Coevorden, A. Lagendijk, “Point scatterers for classical waves,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 447–466 (1998). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1980).
  30. N. W. Ashcroft, N. D. Mermin, Solid-State Physics (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, Pa.1976).
  31. O. Keller, “Screened electromagnetic propagators in nonlocal metal optics,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3883–3899 (1986). [CrossRef]
  32. O. Keller, “Tensor–product structure of a new electromagnetic propagator for nonlocal surface optics of metals,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 10588–10607 (1988). [CrossRef]
  33. J. E. Sipe, “New Green-function formalism for surface optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 481–489 (1987). [CrossRef]
  34. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  35. C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995). [CrossRef]
  36. J.-C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, A. Dereux, J.-P. Goudonnet, Y. Chen, C. Girard, “Observation of light confinement effects with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5332–5335 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited