OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 18, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2001
  • pp: 1696–1703

Radiation efficiency of partially coherent electromagnetic beams

Petter Östlund and Ari T. Friberg  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 1696-1703 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.18.001696


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (223 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present a general definition of the radiation efficiency of stationary electromagnetic fields and prove that it is bounded between zero and unity for beams of any state of coherence and polarization. The radiation efficiency may be interpreted as a measure of how directed the radiated fields are, and therefore it can be used to assess the allowed spatial coherence and intensity variations across a beam. We consider a class of partially coherent electromagnetic fields that were recently introduced in the literature and evaluate the radiation efficiencies for two particular examples, namely, the azimuthally polarized symmetric beams and the dipolar beams that are nearly linearly polarized in the central region. The results show that the radiation efficiency is fairly insensitive to the state of polarization and that it differs appreciably from unity for only small values of source and correlation widths.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
(030.5620) Coherence and statistical optics : Radiative transfer
(030.6600) Coherence and statistical optics : Statistical optics

Citation
Petter Östlund and Ari T. Friberg, "Radiation efficiency of partially coherent electromagnetic beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1696-1703 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-7-1696


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995).
  2. N. Mukunda, R. Simon, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “Fourier optics for the Maxwell field: formalism and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 416–426 (1985).
  3. P. Vahimaa, V. Kettunen, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and A. T. Friberg, “Electromagnetic analysis of nonparaxial Bessel beams generated by diffractive axicons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1817–1824 (1997).
  4. R. Martínez-Herrero, P. M. Mejías, and J. M. Movilla, “Spatial characterization of general partially polarized beams,” Opt. Lett. 22, 206–208 (1997).
  5. F. Gori, “Matrix treatment for partially polarized, partially coherent beams,” Opt. Lett. 23, 241–243 (1998).
  6. F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, S. Vicalvi, R. Borghi, and G. Guattari, “Beam coherence–polarization matrix,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 941–951 (1998).
  7. N. Mukunda, R. Simon, and E. C. G. Sudarshan, “Paraxial-wave optics and relativistic front description. II. The vector theory,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 2933–2942 (1983).
  8. S. R. Seshadri, “Partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model electromagnetic beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1373–1380 (1999).
  9. S. R. Seshadri, “Average characteristics of partially coherent electromagnetic beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 780–789 (2000).
  10. P. L. Greene and D. G. Hall, “Diffraction characteristics of the azimuthal Bessel–Gauss beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 962–966 (1996).
  11. D. F. V. James, “Polarization of light radiated by black-body sources,” Opt. Commun. 109, 209–214 (1994).
  12. T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly symmetric operation of a concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
  13. See, for example, Ref. 1 or A. T. Friberg, ed., Selected Papers on Coherence and Radiometry, Vol. 69 of the SPIE Milestone Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1993).
  14. T. Shirai and T. Asakura, “Radiation efficiency of partially coherent planar sources with various intensity distributions,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 1143–1159 (1993).
  15. T. Shirai and T. Asakura, “Radiation efficiency of partially coherent three-dimensional sources. A comparison with planar sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 2451–2465 (1993).
  16. A. Gamliel, “Radiation efficiency of planar Gaussian Schell-model sources,” Opt. Commun. 60, 333–338 (1986).
  17. A. D. Ostrowsky, “Paraxial approximation of modern radiometry for beamlike wave propagation,” Opt. Rev. 3, 83–88 (1996).
  18. D. K. Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).
  19. We emphasize that this is not a rigorous free-space representation because it ignores the divergency condition of the field. However, from the exact far-field formulas, one can show that Eq. (5) remains valid for reasonably directional electromagnetic fields, or, more specifically, when s⋅E (r ) is negligible for each realization in the source plane.
  20. S. R. Seshadri, “Electromagnetic Gaussian beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2712–2719 (1998).
  21. J. A. Stratton and L. J. Chu, “Diffraction theory of electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. 56, 99–107 (1939).
  22. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, New York, 1965), p. 319.
  23. A. T. Friberg, “Effects of coherence in radiometry,” Opt. Eng. 21, 927–936 (1982).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited