Measurements of a reduced Mueller matrix in backscattering from highly diffusive, dielectric samples are reported as a function of the angle of incidence. It was found that the off-diagonal terms depend greatly on the angle of incidence, increasing to a maximum near grazing incidence. We show that, despite a significant scattering originating in the bulk of such diffusive media, the nontrivial behavior of the off-diagonal Muller matrix is primarily due to surface scattering phenomena. The experimental data can be simply explained by assuming a random orientation of small particles and considering only double scattering in the plane of the surface.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
Jeremy Ellis, Paul Caillard, and Aristide Dogariu, "Off-diagonal Mueller matrix elements in backscattering from highly diffusive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 43-48 (2002)