We derive the bidirectional reflectance distribution function for a class of opaque surfaces that are rough on a macroscale and smooth on a microscale. We model this type of surface as a distribution of spherical mirrors. Since our study concerns geometrical optics, it is only the aperture of the concavities that is relevant, not the dimension. The three-dimensional problem is effectively transformed into a much simpler two-dimensional one involving the possibly infinitely many reflections in a spherical mirror. We find that these types of surface show very strong backscattering when the pits are deep but forward scattering when the pits are shallow. Such surfaces also show spectral effects as a result of multiple reflections and polarization effects that are due to the orientation of the effective surface. Both this model and the locally diffuse thoroughly pitted surface model [Int. J. Comput. Vision 31, 129 (1999)] are superior to other models in that they allow for an exact treatment for physically realizable surface geometries.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 27, 2002
Revised Manuscript: June 18, 2002
Manuscript Accepted: June 18, 2002
Published: December 1, 2002
Sylvia C. Pont and Jan J. Koenderink, "Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of specular surfaces with hemispherical pits," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2456-2466 (2002)