OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2002
  • pp: 1063–1072

Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensors: Does polarization play a role?

Susana Marcos, Luis Diaz-Santana, Lourdes Llorente, and Chris Dainty  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 1063-1072 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1058 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Ocular aberrations were measured in 71 eyes by using two reflectometric aberrometers, employing laser ray tracing (LRT) (60 eyes) and a Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor (S–H) (11 eyes). In both techniques a point source is imaged on the retina (through different pupil positions in the LRT or a single position in the S–H). The aberrations are estimated by measuring the deviations of the retinal spot from the reference as the pupil is sampled (in LRT) or the deviations of a wave front as it emerges from the eye by means of a lenslet array (in the S–H). In this paper we studied the effect of different polarization configurations in the aberration measurements, including linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light in the illuminating channel and sampling light in the crossed or parallel orientations. In addition, completely depolarized light in the imaging channel was obtained from retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence. The intensity distribution of the retinal spots as a function of entry (for LRT) or exit pupil (for S–H) depends on the polarization configuration. These intensity patterns show bright corners and a dark area at the pupil center for crossed polarization, an approximately Gaussian distribution for parallel polarization and a homogeneous distribution for the autofluorescence case. However, the measured aberrations are independent of the polarization states. These results indicate that the differences in retardation across the pupil imposed by corneal birefringence do not produce significant phase delays compared with those produced by aberrations, at least within the accuracy of these techniques. In addition, differences in the recorded aerial images due to changes in polarization do not affect the aberration measurements in these reflectometric aberrometers.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
(330.5370) Vision, color, and visual optics : Physiological optics

Original Manuscript: July 6, 2001
Revised Manuscript: January 3, 2002
Manuscript Accepted: January 3, 2002
Published: June 1, 2002

Susana Marcos, Luis Diaz-Santana, Lourdes Llorente, and Chris Dainty, "Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensors: Does polarization play a role?," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1063-1072 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. L. Zhu, P. Sun, D. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, Y. Fainman, “Adaptive control of a micromachined continuous-membrane deformable mirror for aberration compensation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 168–176 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bará, T. Mancebo, “Phase-plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 25, 236–238 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. MacRae, J. Schwiegerling, R. Snyder, “Customized corneal ablation and super vision,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, 230–235 (2000).
  5. H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, D. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express8, 631–643 (2001). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/31887.htm . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, P. Artal, “Closed-loop adaptive optics in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 26, 746–748 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. He, S. Marcos, R. H. Webb, S. A. Burns, “Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2449–2456 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, J. F. Bille, “Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949–1957 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, “Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873–2883 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Walsh, W. N. Charman, H. C. Howland, “Objective technique for the determination of monochromatic aberrations of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 987–992 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Navarro, M. A. Losada, “Aberrations and relative efficiency of light pencils in the living human eye,” Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 540–547 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. P. Mierdel, H. E. Krinke, W. Wiegand, M. Kaemmerer, T. Seiler, “Measuring device for determining monochromatic aberration of the human eye,” Ophthalmologe 94, 441–445 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, S. A. Burns, “Comparing laser ray tracing, spatially resolved refractometer and Hartmann–Shack sensor to measure the ocular wavefront aberration,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 152–156 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Salmon, L. Thibos, A. Bradley, “Comparison of the eye’s wave-front aberration measured psychophysically and with the Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2457–2465 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. F. C. Delori, K. P. Pfibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Lopez-Gil, H. Howland, “Measurement of the eye’s near infrared wave-front aberration using the objective crossed-cylinder aberroscope technique,” Vision Res. 39, 2031–2037 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. L. Llorente, S. Marcos, S. Barbero, R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, “Ocular aberrations in infrared and visible light using a laser ray tracing technique,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 41, S87 (2001).
  18. W. N. Charman, J. A. M. Jennings, “Objective measurements of the longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye,” Vision Res. 16, 999–1005 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Navarro, “A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations,” Vision Res. 39, 4309–4323 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. X. Zhang, A. B. Bradley, “The chromatic eye: a new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3594–3600 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. J. Van Blokland, S. C. Verhelst, “Corneal polarization in the living human eye explained with a biaxial model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 82–90 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. M. Bueno, M. C. W. Campbell, “Polarization properties for in vivo human lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 42, S161 (2001).
  23. G. J. V. Blokland, D. V. Norren, “Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea.,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986). [CrossRef]
  24. G. J. V. Blokland, “The optics of the human eye with respect to polarized light,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1986).
  25. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, J. S. McLellan, S. A. Burns, “The effect of the polarization on ocular wave aberration measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 809–814 (2002). [CrossRef]
  26. J. M. Bueno, P. Artal, “Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 24, 64–66 (1999). [CrossRef]
  27. P. Artal, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, D. R. Williams, “Odd aberrations and double-pass measurements of retinal image quality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195–201 (1995). [CrossRef]
  28. R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, “Laser ray-tracing method for optical testing,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1–3 (1999). [CrossRef]
  29. E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).
  30. E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Navarro, “Laser ray tracing versus Hartmann–Shack sensor for measuring optical aberrations in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 974–985 (2000). [CrossRef]
  31. H. L. Diaz Santana, J. C. Dainty, “Single-pass measurements of the wave-front aberrations of the human eye by use of retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 24, 61–63 (1999). [CrossRef]
  32. L. Diaz-Santana Haro, “Wavefront sensing in the human eye with a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Ph.D. thesis (Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, 2000).
  33. F. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, J. J. Weiter, “In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718–729 (1995).
  34. J. Bueno, P. Artal, “Polarization and retinal image qual-ity estimates in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 489–496 (2001). [CrossRef]
  35. S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Stanworth, E. J. Naylor, “The polarization optics of the isolated cornea,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 34, 201–211 (1950). [CrossRef]
  37. W. T. Cope, M. L. Wolbarsht, B. S. Yamanashi, “The corneal polarization cross,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1139–1141 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. B. F. Hocheimer, H. A. Kues, “Retinal polarization effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3811–3818 (1982). [CrossRef]
  39. S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Cone spacing and waveguide properties from cone directionality measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 995–1004 (1999). [CrossRef]
  40. S. Marcos, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, “Retinal reflectivity in laser ray tracing measurements: What can we learn apart from ocular aberrations?” Presented at the OSA 2000 Annual Meeting, October 22–26, Providence, R.I., 2000.
  41. S. A. Burns, J. C. He, F. C. Delori, “Do the cones see light scattered from the deep retinal layers,” Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 1 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.
  42. L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, V. S. T. Members, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 110–130.
  43. J. Y. Wang, D. E. Silva, “Wave-front interpretation with Zernike polynomials,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1510–1518 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. R. R. Sokal, F. J. Rohlf, Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 3rd ed. (Freeman, New York, 1995).
  45. J. M. Gorrand, R. Alfieri, J. Y. Boire, “Diffusion of the retinal layers of the living human eye,” Vision Res. 24, 1097–1106 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. J. Gorrand, “Diffusion of the human retina and quality of the optics of the eye on the fovea and the peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 19, 907–912 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. R. A. Farrell, J. F. Wharam, D. Kim, R. L. McCally, “Polarized light propagation in corneal lamellae,” J. Refract. Surg. 15, 700–705 (1999). [PubMed]
  48. K. M. Meek, R. H. Newton, “Organization of collagen fibrils in the corneal stroma in relation to mechanical properties and surgical practice,” Refract. Surg. 15, 695–699 (1999).
  49. R. Brinkmann, B. Radt, C. Flamm, J. Kampmeier, N. Koop, R. Birngruber, “Influence of temperature and time on thermally induced forces in corneal collagen and the effect on laser thermokeratoplasty,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26, 744–754 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited