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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 2, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1985
  • pp: 1832–1835

Changing target size is a stimulus for accommodation

Philip B. Kruger and Jordan Pola  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 2, Issue 11, pp. 1832-1835 (1985)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.2.001832


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Abstract

Accommodation was monitored by using a high-speed infrared optometer while subjects viewed a target that appeared to approach and recede in a sinusoidal manner. The target was presented under open-loop conditions to prevent blurring because of accommodation. The experiments suggest that changing target size can be an effective stimulus on its own. This supports the view that accommodation responds to both dioptric and nondioptric stimuli.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: February 19, 1985
Manuscript Accepted: June 11, 1985
Published: November 1, 1985

Citation
Philip B. Kruger and Jordan Pola, "Changing target size is a stimulus for accommodation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1832-1835 (1985)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-2-11-1832


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References

  1. F. M. Toates, “Accommodation function of the human eye,” Physiol. Rev. 52, 828–863 (1972). [PubMed]
  2. Defocus blur is due to improper focus of the eye. It results when the target is either closer or farther away than the point of focus. Other sources of blur include the aberrations of the eye, diffraction, and scattering of light.
  3. F. W. Campbell, G. Westheimer, “Dynamics of accommodation responses of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 151, 285–295 (1960).
  4. L. Stark, Y. Takahashi, G. Zames, “Nonlinear servoanalysis of human lens accommodation,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Sci. Cybern. SSC-1, 75–83 (1965). [CrossRef]
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  11. R. T. Hennessey, T. Iida, K. Shiina, H. W. Leibowitz, “The effect of pupil size on accommodation,” Vision Res. 16, 587–589 (1976). [CrossRef]
  12. H. D. Crane, T. N. Cornsweet, “Ocular-focus stimulator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 577 (1970).
  13. More specifically, a real image of the target was formed by the optical system, and this image of the target was viewed by the subject.
  14. P. B. Kruger, “Stimuli for accommodation: size, blur, and chromatic aberration,” Ph.D. dissertation (State University of New York, New York, 1984).
  15. P. B. Kruger, “Infrared recording retinoscope for monitoring accommodation,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 56, 116–123 (1979). [CrossRef]
  16. The accommodative system is usually regarded as a closed-loop negative-feedback system. In this view the input to the system is target blur and the output is lens curvature and thickness (lens dioptric power). The system involves negative feedback in the sense that when target blur is present the lens changes shape to eliminate (negate) the blur, so that the target finally appears clear. To open the feedback loop the accommodative system must be modified (through an external control system in our experiment) so that the appearance of the target, whether blurred or clear, is not influenced by changes in lens shape.
  17. G. Wald, D. R. Griffin, “The change in refractive power of the human eye in dim and bright light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 321–336 (1947). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. E. Bedford, G. Wyszecki, “Axial chromatic aberration of the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 564–565 (1957). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. F. Fincham, “The accommodation reflex and its stimulus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 381–393 (1951).
  20. Gain is response amplitude divided by stimulus amplitude, and phase is the distance in degrees from the peak of the stimulus to the peak of the response. To calculate the gain for size alone we used the fact that in the experiment the target initially subtended 4 deg at the eye and was located 50 cm away (2 D). Target size was then varied sinusoidally between 2 and 6 deg, which would simulate a change in distance between 100 cm (1 D) and 33.3 cm (3 D) giving a range of 2 D. To calculate the gain, 2 D was therefore used as the stimulus value.
  21. T. N. Cornsweet, H. D. Crane, “Training the visual accommodation system,” Vision Res. 13, 713–715 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Pilot studies on additional naive subjects suggest that if the target does not appear to approach and recede, but rather appears to be changing size while remaining stationary, the accommodative response may be considerably reduced or even absent.
  23. E. F. Fincham, J. Walton, “The reciprocal actions of accommodation and convergence,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 488–508 (1957).
  24. H. W. Hofstetter, “The proximal factor in accommodation and convergence,” J. Psychol. 30, 393–394 (1950). [CrossRef]
  25. In fact under closed-loop conditions small changes in accommodation can take place within the limits of the depth of focus of the eye without causing noticeable blurring of the target.

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