We present a theory of image texture resulting from the shading of corrugated (three-dimensional textured) surfaces, Lambertian on the micro scale, in the domain of geometrical optics. The derivation applies to isotropic Gaussian random surfaces, under collimated illumination, in normal view. The theory predicts the structure tensors from either the gradient or the Hessian of the image intensity and allows inferences of the direction of irradiation of the surface. Although the assumptions appear <i>prima facie</i> rather restrictive, even for surfaces that are not at all Gaussian, with the bidirectional reflectance distribution function far from Lambertian and vignetting and multiple scattering present, we empirically recover the direction of irradiation with an accuracy of a few degrees.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
Jan J. Koenderink and Sylvia C. Pont, "Irradiation direction from texture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1875-1882 (2003)