Taking the classical Ignatowsky/Richards and Wolf formulas as our starting point, we present expressions for the electric field components in the focal region in the case of a high-numerical-aperture optical system. The transmission function, the aberrations, and the spatially varying state of polarization of the wave exiting the optical system are represented in terms of a Zernike polynomial expansion over the exit pupil of the system; a set of generally complex coefficients is needed for a full description of the field in the exit pupil. The field components in the focal region are obtained by means of the evaluation of a set of basic integrals that all allow an analytic treatment; the expressions for the field components show an explicit dependence on the complex coefficients that characterize the optical system. The electric energy density and the power flow in the aberrated three-dimensional distribution in the focal region are obtained with the expressions for the electric and magnetic field components. Some examples of aberrated focal distributions are presented, and some basic characteristics are discussed.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
Joseph J. M. Braat, Peter Dirksen, Augustus J. E. M. Janssen, and Arthur S. van de Nes, "Extended Nijboer–Zernike representation of the vector field in the focal region of an aberrated high-aperture optical system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2281-2292 (2003)