Two efficient Monte Carlo models are described, facilitating predictions of complete time-resolved fluorescence spectra from a light-scattering and light-absorbing medium. These are compared with a third, conventional fluorescence Monte Carlo model in terms of accuracy, signal-to-noise statistics, and simulation time. The improved computation efficiency is achieved by means of a convolution technique, justified by the symmetry of the problem. Furthermore, the reciprocity principle for photon paths, employed in one of the accelerated models, is shown to simplify the computations of the distribution of the emitted fluorescence drastically. A so-called white Monte Carlo approach is finally suggested for efficient simulations of one excitation wavelength combined with a wide range of emission wavelengths. The fluorescence is simulated in a purely scattering medium, and the absorption properties are instead taken into account analytically afterward. This approach is applicable to the conventional model as well as to the two accelerated models. Essentially the same absolute values for the fluorescence integrated over the emitting surface and time are obtained for the three models within the accuracy of the simulations. The time-resolved and spatially resolved fluorescence exhibits a slight overestimation at short delay times close to the source corresponding to approximately two grid elements for the accelerated models, as a result of the discretization and the convolution. The improved efficiency is most prominent for the reverse-emission accelerated model, for which the simulation time can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(170.6280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence
(170.7050) Medical optics and biotechnology : Turbid media
(300.6170) Spectroscopy : Spectra
Johannes Swartling, Antonio Pifferi, Annika M. K. Enejder, and Stefan Andersson-Engels, "Accelerated Monte Carlo models to simulate fluorescence spectra from layered tissues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 714-727 (2003)