We construct the coherent-mode representation for fluctuating, statistically stationary electromagnetic fields. The modes are shown to be spatially fully coherent in the sense of a recently introduced spectral degree of electromagnetic coherence. We also prove that the electric cross-spectral density tensor can be rigorously expressed as a correlation tensor averaged over an appropriate ensemble of strictly monochromatic vectorial wave functions. The formalism is demonstrated for partially polarized, partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams, but the theory applies to arbitrary random electromagnetic fields and can find applications in radiation and propagation and in inverse problems.
© 2004 Optical Society of America
(030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
(030.6600) Coherence and statistical optics : Statistical optics
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
Jani Tervo, Tero Setälä, and Ari T. Friberg, "Theory of partially coherent electromagnetic fields in the space–frequency domain," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2205-2215 (2004)