OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2004
  • pp: 959–967

Image formation by use of the geometrical theory of diffraction

Andrew Khoh, Ganesh S. Samudra, Yihong Wu, Tom Milster, and Byoung-Il Choi  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 959-967 (2004)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.21.000959


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (565 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A deeper understanding of imaging behavior is needed with the widespread adoption of optical proximity correction in advanced lithography processes. To gain insight into the printing behavior of different mask pattern configurations, we derive edge-based and vertex-based image models by combining concepts contained in the geometrical theory of diffraction and Hopkins’s image model. The models are scalar models and apply to planar, perfectly conducting mask objects.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography

Citation
Andrew Khoh, Ganesh S. Samudra, Yihong Wu, Tom Milster, and Byoung-Il Choi, "Image formation by use of the geometrical theory of diffraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 959-967 (2004)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-21-6-959


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. “ITRS Roadmap,” at http://public.itrs.net/Files/2002Update-Litho.pdf.
  2. J. F. Chen, T. Laidig, K. E. Wampler, R. Caldwell, K. H. Nakagawa, and A. Liebchen, “A practical technology path to sub-0.10 micron process generations via enhanced optical lithography,” in Photomask Technology, F. Abboud and B. J. Grenon, eds., Proc. SPIE 3873, 995–1016 (1999).
  3. N. Cobb, A. Zakhor, and E. Miloslavsky, “Mathematical and CAD framework for proximity correction,” in Optical Microlithography, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE 2726, 208–221 (1996).
  4. J. F. Chen, T. Laidig, K. E. Wampler, and R. Caldwell, “Optical proximity correction for intermediate-pitch features using sub-resolution scattering bars,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2426–2433 (1997).
  5. F. M. Schellenberg, “Resolution enhancement with OPC/PSM,” Future Fab Intl., 9 (2000).
  6. B. E. A. Saleh, “Reduction of errors of microphotographic reproductions by optimal corrections of original masks,” Opt. Eng. 20, 781–784 (1981).
  7. J. B. Keller, “Geometrical theory of diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 116–130 (1962).
  8. H. H. Hopkins, “Image formation with coherent and partially coherent light,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 21, 114–122 (1977).
  9. J. Komrska, “Algebraic expressions of shape amplitudes of polygons and polyhedra,” Optik 80, 171–183 (1988).
  10. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
  11. G. L. James, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction for Electromagnetic Waves (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1986).
  12. SOLID-C, a software product (release 5.6.2) (SIGMA-C GmbH, http://www.sigma-c.com).
  13. V. A. Borovikov and B. Ye. Kinber, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1994).
  14. R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and its Application (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000).
  15. A. Khoh, “Image formation using geometrical theory of diffraction and its applications to lithography,” Ph.D. dissertation (National University of Singapore, Singapore, 2003).
  16. A. Khoh, D. Flagello, T. Milster, B.-I. Choi, G. S. Samudra, and Y.-H. Wu, “Extending a GTD-based image formation technique to EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE 5037, 682–689 (2003).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited