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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2005
  • pp: 77–83

Focal shifts in diffracted converging electromagnetic waves. II. Rayleigh theory

Yajun Li  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 77-83 (2005)

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Part II of this study is an application of the Rayleigh vector diffraction integrals to an investigation of the effect of focal shifts in converging spherical waves diffracted in systems of arbitrary relative aperture. The results are compared numerically with those obtained in Part I [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 68 (2005)] from the Kirchhoff vector diffraction theory. The effect of the numerical aperture (NA) on focal shifts can be considered in two regions: When NA0.5 the system behaves like an paraxial system, and the Fresnel number is the dominant factor. When 0.5<NA0.9 the absolute value of the relative focal shift decreases with increasing value of NA.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory

Original Manuscript: July 16, 2004
Revised Manuscript: August 27, 2004
Published: January 1, 2005

Yajun Li, "Focal shifts in diffracted converging electromagnetic waves. II. Rayleigh theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 77-83 (2005)

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  1. Y. Li, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging electromagnetic waves. I. Kirchhoff theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 68 (2005). [CrossRef]
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  11. C. J. R. Sheppard, P. Török, “Focal shift and axial coordinates for high-aperture systems of finite Fresnel number,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2156–2162 (2003). [CrossRef]

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