We present an image-based method for face recognition across different illuminations and poses, where the term image-based means that no explicit prior three-dimensional models are needed. As face recognition under illumination and pose variations involves three factors, namely, identity, illumination, and pose, generalizations in all these three factors are desired. We present a recognition approach that is able to generalize in the identity and illumination dimensions and handle a given set of poses. Specifically, the proposed approach derives an identity signature that is illumination- and pose-invariant, where the identity is tackled by means of subspace encoding, the illumination is characterized with a Lambertian reflectance model, and the given set of poses is treated as a whole. Experimental results using the Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE) database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: January 6, 2004
Revised Manuscript: June 16, 2004
Manuscript Accepted: September 9, 2004
Published: February 1, 2005
Shaohua Kevin Zhou and Rama Chellappa, "Image-based face recognition under illumination and pose variations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 217-229 (2005)