OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 2005
  • pp: 401–415

Chromatic shadow compatibility and cone-excitation ratios

Genevieve M. Heckman, Jeffrey A. Muday, and James A. Schirillo  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 401-415 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (545 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Logvinenko [Perception 31, 201 (2002)] asserts that Adelson's wall-of-blocks illusion [Science 262, 2042 (1993)], where identical gray-cube surface tops appear to differ in brightness, arises when the surfaces surrounding the cube tops are shadow compatible, creating a concomitant illusion of transparency. We replicated Logvinenko's main findings in the chromatic domain across three experiments in which observers match cube tops in hue, saturation, and brightness. A second set of stimuli adjusted cone-excitation ratios across the apparent transparency border [Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115 (1994)], which enhanced lightness and brightness constancy but only when the stimuli varied in both chromaticity and intensity.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.0330) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision, color, and visual optics
(330.1690) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color
(330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision

Genevieve M. Heckman, Jeffrey A. Muday, and James A. Schirillo, "Chromatic shadow compatibility and cone-excitation ratios," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 401-415 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. A. Logvinenko, "Articulation in the context of edge classification," Perception 31, 201-207 (2002).
  2. A. D. Logvinenko, "A fair test of the effect of a shadow-incompatible luminance gradient on the simultaneous lightness contrast (followed by discussion)," Perception 32, 717-730 (2003).
  3. E. H. Adelson, "Perceptual organization and the judgment of brightness," Science 262, 2042-2044 (1993).
  4. L. E. Arend and R. Goldstein, "Simultaneous constancy, lightness, brightness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281-2285 (1986).
  5. D. Marr, Vision (Freeman, New York, 1982).
  6. H. Wallach, "Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors," J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310-324 (1948).
  7. F. Kingdom, "Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz," Perception 26, 673-677 (1997).
  8. F. Kingdom, "Old wine in new bottles? Some thoughts on Logvinenko's 'Lightness induction revisited,"' Perception 28, 929-934 (1999).
  9. C. S. Barnes, J. Wei, and S. K. Shevell, "Chromatic induction with remote chromatic contrast varied in magnitude, spatial frequency, and chromaticity," Vision Res. 39, 3561-3574 (1999).
  10. E. Brenner, F. W. Cornelissen, and J. F. W. Nuboer, "Some spatial aspects of simultaneous color contrast," in Seeing Contour and Colour , J. J. Kulikowski, C. M. Dickinson, and I. J. Murray, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1989), pp. 311-316.
  11. N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, and J. Schirillo, "Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring," Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643-654 (1997).
  12. A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
  13. J. W. Jenness and S. K. Shevell, "Color appearance with sparse chromatic context," Vision Res. 35, 797-805 (1995).
  14. P. Monnier and S. Shevell, "Chromatic induction from S-cone patterns," Vision Res. 44, 849-859 (2004).
  15. J. A. Schirillo and S. K. Shevell, "Role of perceptual organization in chromatic induction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 244-254 (2000).
  16. J. W. L. R. Strutt (Lord Rayleigh), "On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour," Philos. Mag. 41, 107-129 (1871).
  17. K. D. Abhyankar, "Hundred and twenty five years of Rayleigh scattering in the study of the planetary atmospheres," Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 37, 281-295 (1996).
  18. M. Born and E. Wolf, "Diffraction by a conducting Sphere: Theory of Mie," in Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference, and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 633-644.
  19. M. E. Churma, "Blue shadows: physical, physiological, and psychological causes," Appl. Opt. 33, 4719-4722 (1994).
  20. I. Priest, "Blue sky and white snow," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 308 (1926).
  21. L. Arend and A. Reeves, "Simultaneous color constancy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1743-1751 (1986).
  22. K. T. Blackwell and G. Buchsbaum, "Quantitative studies of color constancy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1772-1780 (1998).
  23. D. H. Brainard, "The effect of the illuminant on color appearance," in Perceiving, Measuring, and Using Color, M. Brill, ed., Proc. SPIE 1250, 119-130 (1990).
  24. L. E. Arend, A. Reeves, J. Schirillo, and R. Goldstein, "Simultaneous color constancy: papers with diverse Munsell values," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 661-672 (1991).
  25. M. P. Lucassen and J. Walraven, "Quantifying color constancy: evidence for nonlinear processing of cone-specific contrast," Vision Res. 33, 739-757 (1993).
  26. D. H. Brainard and W. T. Freeman, "Bayesian color constancy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1393-1411 (1997).
  27. D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307-325 (1998).
  28. D. H. Foster and S. M. C. Nascimento, "Relational colour constancy from invariant cone-excitiation ratios," Proc. R. Soc. London 257, 115-121 (1994).
  29. S. M. C. Nascimento and D. H. Foster, "Detecting natural changes of cone-excitation ratios in simple and complex coloured images," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 264, 1395-1402 (1997).
  30. S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, "Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484-1490 (2002).
  31. D. B. Judd, "Colorimetry and artificial daylight," in Proceedings of the 12th Session CIE, Stockholm (Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1951).
  32. J. J. Vos, "Colormetric and photometric properties of a 2 degree fundamental observer," Color Res. Appl. 3, 125-128 (1978).
  33. J. J. Vos and J. Walraven, "On the derivation of the foveal receptor primaries," Vision Res. 11, 799-818 (1971).
  34. J. Walraven and J. S. Werner, "The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra," Vision Res. 31, 2185-2193 (1991).
  35. D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, "Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183-1186 (1979).
  36. I. C. Priest, "The spectral distribution of energy required to evoke the gray sensation," Vol. 17 of Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1922), pp. 231-265.
  37. D. H. Brainard and B. A. Wandell, "Asymmetric color matching: how color appearance depends on the illuminant," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1433-1448 (1992).
  38. A. O. Corporation, "Pseudo-isochromatic plates for testing color perception" (I.S.C. Council, Beck Engraving, Philadelphia, Pa., 1940).
  39. S. Nadimi and B. Bhanu, "Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 26, 1079-1087 (2004).
  40. J. Golz and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Colorimetry for CRT displays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 769-781 (2003).
  41. J. Krauskopf and K. R. Gegenfurtner, "Color discrimination and adaptation," Vision Res. 32, 2165-2175 (1992).
  42. L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446-456 (1993).
  43. L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457-468 (1993).
  44. K. R. Perkins and J. A. Schirillo, "Three-dimensional spatial grouping affects estimates of the illuminant," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2246-2253 (2003).
  45. F. Metelli, "The perception of transparency," Sci. Am. 230, 91-98 (1974).
  46. R. Ribilotto, B. Khaung, and Q. Zaidi, "Sensory and physical determinants of perceived achromatic transparency," J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 388-403 (2002).
  47. S. C. Masin, "Luminance determinants of perceived surface stratification in two-dimensional achromatic transparent patterns," Perception 29, 853-861 (2000).
  48. S. C. Masin, "The luminance conditions of transparency," Perception 26, 39-50 (1997).
  49. H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol. II , 3rd German ed., J. P. C. Southhall, ed. (Dover, New York, 1866/1962).
  50. M. A. Webster, G. Malkoc, A. C. Bilson, and S. M. Webster, "Color contrast and contextual influences on color appearance," J. Vision 2, 505-519 (2002).
  51. F. A. A. Kingdom, "Levels of brightness perception," in Levels of Perception , L. Harris and M. Jenkin, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 19-41.
  52. J. Beck, K. Prazdny, and R. Ivry, "The perception of transparency with achromatic colors," Percept. Psychophys. 35, 407-422 (1984).
  53. W. Gerbino, "Models of achromatic transparency: a theoretical analysis," Gestalt Theory 10, 5-20 (1988).
  54. A. Logvinenko, "Invariant relationships between achromatic colour, apparent illumination and shape of surface: implications for the colour constancy theories," in John Dalton's Colour Vision Legacy , C. M. Dickinson, I. J. Murray, and D. Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), pp. 591-597.
  55. F. A. A. Kingdom, B. Blakeslee, and M. E. McCourt, "Brightness with and without perceived transparency: When does it make a difference?" Perception 26, 493-506 (1997).
  56. B. Khang and Q. Zaidi, "Accuracy of color scission for spec-tral transparencies," J. Math. Imaging Vision 2, 451-466 (2002).
  57. B. Khang and Q. Zaidi, "Cues and strategies for color constancy: perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching," Vision Res. 42, 211-226 (2002).
  58. M. D'Zmura, P. Colantoni, K. Knoblauch, and B. Laget, "Color transparency," Perception 26, 471-492 (1997).
  59. S. Westland and C. Ripamonti, "Invariant cone-excitation ratios may predict transparency," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 255-264 (2000).
  60. M. D'Zmura, O. Rinner, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, "The colors seen behind transparent filters," Perception 29, 911-926 (2000).
  61. V. J. Chen and M. D'Zmura, "Test of a convergence model for color transparency perception," Perception 27, 595-608 (1998).
  62. F. Faul and V. Ekroll, "Psychophysical model of chromatic perceptual transparency based on subtractive color mixture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1084-1095 (2002).
  63. C. Ripamonti, S. Westland, and O. Da Pos, "Conditions for perceptual transparency," J. Electron. Imaging 13, 29-35 (2002).
  64. S. Westland, O. Da Pos, and C. Ripamonti, "Conditions for perceptual transparency," in Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, B. E. Rogowitz and T. N. Pappas, eds., Proc. SPIE 4662, 315-323 (2002).
  65. J. Beck, "On the computational modeling of human vision," in Foundations of Image Analysis , L. Davis, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 1-27.
  66. A. Logvinenko and D. A. Ross, "Adelson's tile and snake illusions: Helmholtzian type of simultaneous lightness contrast," submitted to Vision Res.
  67. K. H. Bauml, "Illuminant changes under different surface collections: examining some principles of color appearance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 261-271 (1995).
  68. J. D. Mollon, "'Cherries among the leaves': the evolutionary origins of color vision," in Color Perception: Philosophical, Psychological, Artistic and Computational Perspectives , S. Davis, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 2000), pp. 10-30.
  69. H. K. Bauml, "Simultaneous color constancy: how surface color perception varies with the illuminant," Vision Res. 39, 1531-1550 (1999).
  70. S. Oddo, J. Beck, and E. Mingolla, "Texture segregation in chromatic element-arrangement patterns," Spatial Vis. 12, 421-459 (1999).
  71. B. J. Craven and D. H. Foster, "An operational approach to colour constancy," Vision Res. 32, 1359-1366 (1992).
  72. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae , 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited