OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2006
  • pp: 2880–2887

Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20 1000 eV range

Mónica Fernández-Perea, Juan I. Larruquert, José A. Aznárez, José A. Méndez, Luca Poletto, A. Marco Malvezzi, Angelo Giglia, and Stefano Nannarone  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 23, Issue 11, pp. 2880-2887 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (413 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The transmittance of thin films of Sc deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions has been investigated in the 20 1000 eV spectral range. Transmittance measurements were performed in situ on Sc layers that were deposited over grids coated with a C support film. Transmittance measurements were used to obtain the extinction coefficient of Sc films at each individual photon energy investigated. These data, along with the data available in the literature for the rest of the spectrum, were used to obtain the refractive index of Sc by means of the Kramers–Krönig analysis. Sum-rule tests indicated an acceptable consistency of the data.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.4530) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical constants
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(260.7200) Physical optics : Ultraviolet, extreme
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(350.2450) Other areas of optics : Filters, absorption

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: December 19, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: May 19, 2006

Mónica Fernández-Perea, Juan I. Larruquert, José A. Aznárez, José A. Méndez, Luca Poletto, A. Marco Malvezzi, Angelo Giglia, and Stefano Nannarone, "Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20-1000 eV range," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2880-2887 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Y. U. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, and V. Y. Fedotov, "High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35-50nm," Opt. Lett. 23, 771-773 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, "14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window," Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Weaver and C. G. Olson, "Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium," Phys. Rev. B 16, 731-735 (1977). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Optical properties of 3D transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 288-294 (1997).
  7. Y. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, and V. V. Kondratenko, "Efficient method for the determination of extreme-ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 298-305 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, "Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, R. Soufli and J. F. Seely, eds., Proc. SPIE 5538, 64-71 (2004).
  9. J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, "Optical properties of Sc films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet," Appl. Opt. 43, 3271-3278 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, "Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444-3450 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Oxford U. Press, 1948).
  12. S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453. [CrossRef]
  13. L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA," T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, and J. Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142-1145. [CrossRef]
  14. Absolute XUV silicon photodiode (AXUV series) by International Radiation Detectors, Inc.
  15. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000eV, Z=1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993). These data have been updated after the preparation of this research by including the measurements of Ref. . [CrossRef]
  16. Henke, data of Ref. are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/opticallowbarconstants/
  17. J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Physik Daten, 18-2 (Fach-informationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1981).
  18. M. Gasgnier, Ch. Henry la Blanchetais, and P. E. Caro, "Réactivitè des métaux des terres rares yttriques et du scandium en couches minces vis-à-vis de l'atmosphère résiduelle du microscope électronique," Thin Solid Films 31, 283-295 (1976). [CrossRef]
  19. B. Sae-Lao and R. Soufli, "Measurements of the refractive index of yttrium in the 50-1300eV energy region," Appl. Opt. 41, 7309-7316 (2002). [PubMed]
  20. T. G. Mayerhöfer, "New method of modeling infrared spectra of non-cubic single-phase polycrystalline materials with random orientation," Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1194-1205 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. A tabulated form of the data is available on request at the following e-mail address: larruquert@ifa.cetef.csic.es.
  22. E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited