OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2006
  • pp: 821–828

Incorporating mask topography edge diffraction in photolithography simulations

Jaione Tirapu-Azpiroz and Eli Yablonovitch  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 23, Issue 4, pp. 821-828 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.23.000821


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (719 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In deep ultraviolet lithography simulations, conventional application of Kirchhoff’s boundary conditions on the mask surface provides the so-called “thin-mask” approximation of the object field. Current subwavelength lithographic operation, however, places a serious limitation on this approximation, which fails to account for the topographical, or “thick-mask,” effects. In this paper, a new simulation model is proposed that is theoretically founded on the well-established physical theory of diffraction. This model relies on the key result that diffraction effects can be interpreted as an intrinsic edge property, and modeled with just two fixed parameters: width and transmission coefficient of a locally determined boundary layer applied to each chrome edge. The proposed model accurately accounts for thick-mask effects of the fields on the mask, greatly improving the accuracy of aerial image simulations in photolithography, while maintaining a reasonable computational cost.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

History
Original Manuscript: April 19, 2005
Revised Manuscript: July 16, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2005

Citation
Jaione Tirapu-Azpiroz and Eli Yablonovitch, "Incorporating mask topography edge diffraction in photolithography simulations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 821-828 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-23-4-821


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1987).
  2. H. J. Levinson, Principles of Lithography (SPIE, 2001).
  3. M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, and R. A. Simpson, "Improving resolution in photolithography with phase shifting-mask," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-29, 1828-1836 (1982).
  4. C. Pierrat and A. Wong, "The MEF revisited: Low k1 effects versus mask topography effects," in Optical Microlithography XVI, A.Yen, ed., Proc. SPIE 5040, 193-202 (2003).
  5. M. S. Yeung and E. Barouch, "Limitation of the Kirchhoff boundary conditions for aerial image simulation in 157 nm optical lithography," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 21, 433-435 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Y. Ufimtsev, Method of Edge Waves in the Physical Theory of Diffraction (Foreign Technology Division, Air Force Systems Command, 1971).
  7. K. Adam and A. R. Neureuther, "Simplified models for edge transitions in rigorous mask modeling," in Optical Microlithography XIV, C.J.Progler, ed., Proc. SPIE 4346, 331-344 (2001).
  8. A. Khoh, G. S. Samudra, W. Yihong, T. Milster, and B.-I. Choi, "Image formation by use of the geometrical theory of diffraction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 959-967 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, "Analysis and modeling of photomask near-fields in subwavelength deep ultraviolet lithography," Ph.D. dissertation (University of California at Los Angeles, 2004).
  10. C. T. Tai, "Direct integration of field equations," Electromagn. Waves : Prog. Electromagn. Res. 28, 339-359 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Y. Ufimtsev, "Rubinowicz and the modern theory of diffracted rays," Electromagnetics 15, 547-565 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. P. Y. Ufimtsev, "Elementary edge waves and the physical theory of diffraction," Electromagnetics 11, 125-160 (1991). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Tirapu-Azpiroz and E. Yablonovitch, "Modeling of near-field effects in sub-wavelength deep ultraviolet lithography," in Future Trends of Microelectronics 2003, S.Luryi, J.Xu, and A.Zaslavsky, eds. (Wiley-IEEE, 2004), pp. 80-92.
  14. A. K. Wong and A. R. Neureuther, "Mask topography effects in projection printing of phase-shifting masks," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 895-902 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Tirapu-Azpiroz and E. Yablonovitch, "Fast evaluation of photomask near-fields in sub-wavelength 193 nm lithography," Proc. SPIE 5377, 1528-1535 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. T. V. Pistor, A. R. Neureuther, and R. J. Socha, "Modeling oblique incidence effects in photomasks," in Optical Microlithography XIV, C.J.Progler, ed., Proc. SPIE 4000, 228-237 (2000).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited