OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2006
  • pp: 1282–1291

Multimodel Kalman filtering for adaptive nonuniformity correction in infrared sensors

Jorge E. Pezoa, Majeed M. Hayat, Sergio N. Torres, and Md. Saifur Rahman  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 23, Issue 6, pp. 1282-1291 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (539 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present an adaptive technique for the estimation of nonuniformity parameters of infrared focal-plane arrays that is robust with respect to changes and uncertainties in scene and sensor characteristics. The proposed algorithm is based on using a bank of Kalman filters in parallel. Each filter independently estimates state variables comprising the gain and the bias matrices of the sensor, according to its own dynamic-model parameters. The supervising component of the algorithm then generates the final estimates of the state variables by forming a weighted superposition of all the estimates rendered by each Kalman filter. The weights are computed and updated iteratively, according to the a posteriori-likelihood principle. The performance of the estimator and its ability to compensate for fixed-pattern noise is tested using both simulated and real data obtained from two cameras operating in the mid- and long-wave infrared regime.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1520) Detectors : CCD, charge-coupled device
(100.2550) Image processing : Focal-plane-array image processors
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
(100.3020) Image processing : Image reconstruction-restoration
(110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: July 29, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: November 18, 2005

Jorge E. Pezoa, Majeed M. Hayat, Sergio N. Torres, and Md. Saifur Rahman, "Multimodel Kalman filtering for adaptive nonuniformity correction in infrared sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1282-1291 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Harris and Y.-M. Chiang, "Nonuniformity correction of infrared image sequences using the constant-statistics constraint," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 1148-1151 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Milton, F. Barone, and M. Kruer, "Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array performance," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 24, 855-862 (1985).
  3. J. Mooney, F. Shepherd, W. Ewing, J. Murguia, and J. Silverman, "Responsivity nonuniformity limited performance of infrared staring cameras," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1151-1161 (1989).
  4. D. Perry and E. Dereniak, "Linear theory of nonuniformity correction in infrared staring sensors," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 1854-1859 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Zhou, S. Liu, D. Wang, and Y. Cheng, "Solution for the nonuniformity correction of infrared focal plane arrays," Appl. Opt. 44, 2928-2932 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. E. Armstrong, M. M. Hayat, R. C. Hardie, S. N. Torres, and B. Yasuda, "Nonuniformity correction for improved registration and high-resolution image reconstruction in IR imagery," in Applications of Digital Image Processing XXII, A.G.Tescher, ed., Proc. SPIE 3808, 150-161 (1999).
  7. R. C. Hardie, M. M. Hayat, E. E. Armstrong, and B. Yasuda, "Scene-based nonuniformity correction using video sequences and registration," Appl. Opt. 39, 1241-1250 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Ratliff, M. Hayat, and R. Hardie, "An algebraic algorithm for nonuniformity correction in focal-plane arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1737-1747 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Ratliff, M. Hayat, and R. Hardie, "Radiometrically accurate scene-based nonuniformity correction for array sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1890-1899 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Ratliff, M. Hayat, and J. Tyo, "Generalized algebraic scene-based nonuniformity correction algorithm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 239-249 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Narendra, "Reference-free nonuniformity compensation for IR imaging arrays," in Smart Sensors II, D.F.Barbe, ed., Proc. SPIE 252, 10-17 (1980).
  12. S. Torres and M. Hayat, "Kalman filtering for adaptive nonuniformity correction in infrared focal-plane arrays," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 470-480 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Torres, J. Pezoa, and M. Hayat, "Scene-based nonuniformity correction for focal plane arrays by the method of the inverse covariance form," Appl. Opt. 42, 5872-5881 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Scribner, M. Kruer, and J. Killiany, "Infrared focal plane array technology," Proc. IEEE 79, 66-85 (1991). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Scribner, K. Sarkady, M. Kruer, J. Calufield, J. Hunt, M. Colbert, and M. Descour, "Adaptive retina-like preprocessing for imaging detector arrays," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 3, pp. 1955-1960. [CrossRef]
  16. Y.-M. Chiang and J. G. Harris, "An analog integrated circuit for continuous-time gain and offset calibration of sensor arrays," Analog Integr. Circuits Signal Process. 12, 231-238 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Hayat, S. Torres, E. Armstrong, B. Yasuda, and S. Cain, "Statistical algorithm for nonuniformity correction in focal-plane arrays," Appl. Opt. 38, 772-780 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Sims, D. Lianiotis, and D. Magill, "Recursive algorithm for the calculation of the adaptive Kalman filter weighting coefficients," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 14, 215-218 (1969). [CrossRef]
  19. G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Cameras and Displays (SPIE, 1996).
  20. R. Hawkes and J. Moore, "Performance bounds for adaptive estimation," Proc. IEEE 64, 1143-1150 (1976). [CrossRef]
  21. B. Anderson and J. Moore, Optimal Filtering (Prentice Hall, 1979).
  22. M. F. Tappen and W. T. Freeman, "Comparison of graph cuts with belief propagation for stereo, using identical MRF parameters," in Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 900-907. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited