OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 24, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2007
  • pp: 132–138

Polarization of “water-skies” above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance

Ramón Hegedüs, Susanne Åkesson, and Gábor Horváth  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 1, pp. 132-138 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.24.000132


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1470 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The foggy sky above a white ice-cover and a dark water surface (permanent polynya or temporary lead) is white and dark gray, phenomena called the “ice-sky” and the “water-sky,” respectively. Captains of icebreaker ships used to search for not-directly-visible open waters remotely on the basis of the water sky. Animals depending on open waters in the Arctic region may also detect not-directly-visible waters from a distance by means of the water sky. Since the polarization of ice-skies and water-skies has not, to our knowledge, been studied before, we measured the polarization patterns of water-skies above polynyas in the arctic ice-cover during the Beringia 2005 Swedish polar research expedition to the North Pole region. We show that there are statistically significant differences in the angle of polarization between the water-sky and the ice-sky. This polarization phenomenon could help biological and man-made sensors to detect open waters not directly visible from a distance. However, the threshold of polarization-based detection would be rather low, because the degree of linear polarization of light radiated by water-skies and ice-skies is not higher than 10%.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
(110.2960) Imaging systems : Image analysis
(120.5410) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Polarimetry
(280.1310) Remote sensing and sensors : Atmospheric scattering
(330.7310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 17, 2006
Revised Manuscript: June 29, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: July 19, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Ramón Hegedüs, Susanne Åkesson, and Gábor Horváth, "Polarization of 'water-skies' above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 132-138 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-1-132


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. I. Stirling, 'The biological importance of polynyas in the Canadian Arctic,' Arctic 33, 303-315 (1980).
  2. I.Stirling and H.Cleator (eds.), 'Polynyas in the Canadian Arctic,' Occas. Pap. Can. Wildl. Serv. 45, 1-70 (1981).
  3. I. Stirling, 'The importance of polynyas, ice edges, and leads to marine mammals and birds,' J. Mar. Syst. 10, 9-21 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ancel, G. L. Kooyman, P. J. Ponganis, J. P. Gendner, J. Lignon, X. Mestre, N. Huin, P. H. Thorson, P. Robisson, and Y. Le Maho, 'Foraging behaviour of emperor penguins as a resource detector in winter and summer,' Nature 360, 336-339 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tilzer, 125 Jahre Deutsche Polarforschung (2nd edition, Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994).
  6. C. P. McRoy and J. J. Goering, 'Annual budget of primary production in the Bearing Sea,' Mar. Sci. Comm. 2, 255-267 (1976).
  7. R. G. B. Brown and D. N. Nettleship, 'The biological significance of polynyas to arctic colonial seabirds,' in I. Stirling and H. Cleator (eds.), Polynyas in the Canadian Arctic. Can. Wildl. Serv. Occas. Pap. 45, 59-65 (1981).
  8. H. J. Hirche, M. E. M. Baumann, G. Kattner, and R. Gradinger, 'Plankton distribution and the impact of copepod grazing on primary production in Fram Strait, Greenland Sea,' J. Mar. Syst. 2, 477-494 (1991). [CrossRef]
  9. I. Stirling, D. Andriashek, and W. Calvert, 'Habitat preferences of polar bears in the Western Canadian Arctic in late winter and spring,' Pol. Res. 29, 13-24 (1993).
  10. K. Born, Ø. Wiig, and J. Thomassen, 'Seasonal and annual movements of radio-collared polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in northeast Greenland,' J. Mar. Syst. 10, 67-77 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Horváth, and D. Varjú, Polarized Light in Animal Vision--Polarization Patterns in Nature (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  12. J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, 'Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,' Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 457, 1385-1399 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited