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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 24, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2007
  • pp: 243–252

Quantization index modulation-based image watermarking using digital holography

O. Erman Okman and Gozde Bozdagi Akar  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 1, pp. 243-252 (2007)

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We propose a blind watermarking method where the watermark is a hologram itself. In the proposed approach, the quantized phase of the hologram is embedded into the wavelet-transformed host image using quantization index modulation. In the detection stage, wavelet transform of the watermarked image followed by a minimum distance decoder is used. The proposed method is blind since it requires only information about the quantizers and the parameters of the hologram recording process. The robustness of the proposed technique is tested against several attacks such as filtering, compression, occlusion, and cropping. Moreover, we discuss the effect of quantization of the hologram on the reconstruction quality.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.2590) Fourier optics and signal processing : ABCD transforms
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(100.7410) Image processing : Wavelets

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 15, 2006
Revised Manuscript: July 6, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: July 18, 2006

O. Erman Okman and Gozde Bozdagi Akar, "Quantization index modulation-based image watermarking using digital holography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 243-252 (2007)

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