OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 24, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2007
  • pp: 3140–3149

Sidelobe suppression in chiral optical filters by apodization of the local form birefringence

Andy C. van Popta, Kevin R. van Popta, Jeremy C. Sit, and Michael J. Brett  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 10, pp. 3140-3149 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.24.003140


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (818 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Chiral optical filters are characterized by circular Bragg effects, including the preferential reflection and transmission of circular polarization states. The selective response to circularly polarized light is caused by stratified birefringent plates twisted into a helical arrangement, as seen in cholesteric liquid crystals and columnar thin films produced by oblique-angle physical vapor deposition. A refinement of the latter, glancing angle deposition employs substrate rotation to control the optical anisotropy of columnar thin films, and was used in this study to suppress the reflection sidelobes of chiral optical filters by modulating the local birefringence of helically structured thin films using an apodization function. Both theoretical simulations based on Berreman formalism, and experimental results involving evaporated Ti O 2 thin films are presented and compared.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
(220.1230) Optical design and fabrication : Apodization
(230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
(230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: October 13, 2006
Revised Manuscript: May 8, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: June 20, 2007
Published: September 13, 2007

Citation
Andy C. van Popta, Kevin R. van Popta, Jeremy C. Sit, and Michael J. Brett, "Sidelobe suppression in chiral optical filters by apodization of the local form birefringence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3140-3149 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-10-3140


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1986). [CrossRef]
  2. I. J. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, Birefringent Thin Films and Polarizing Elements (World Scientific, 1997). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral sculptured thin films," Nature (London) 384, 616-616 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, K. E. Thorn, A. Lakhtakia, and M. W. McCall, "Spacerless circular-polarization spectral-hole filters using chiral sculptured thin films: theory and experiment," Opt. Commun. 184, 57-66 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. A. C. van Popta, M. J. Brett, and J. C. Sit, "Double-handed circular Bragg phenomena in polygonal helix thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 083517 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Khan, I. Shiyanovskaya, T. Schneider, N. Miller, T. Ernst, D. Marhefka, F. Nicholson, S. Green, and G. Magyar, "Reflective cholesteric displays: from rigid to flexible," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13, 469-474 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Sit, D. J. Broer, and M. J. Brett, "Liquid crystal alignment and switching in porous chiral thin films," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 12, 371-373 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lakhtakia, M. W. McCall, J. A. Sherwin, Q. H. Wu, and I. J. Hodgkinson, "Sculptured-thin-film spectral holes for optical sensing of fluids," Opt. Commun. 194, 33-46 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. P. C. P. Hrudey, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, "Optical properties of porous nanostructured Y2O3:Eu thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23, 856-861 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. P. C. P. Hrudey, K. L. Westra, and M. J. Brett, "Highly ordered organic Alq3 chiral luminescent thin films fabricated by glancing-angle deposition," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 224-228 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, "Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 746-749 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. W. Cao, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, A. Marino, and G. Abbate, "Lasing thresholds of cholesteric liquid crystals lasers," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 429, 101-110 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. W. H. Southwell and R. L. Hall, "Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers," Appl. Opt. 28, 2949-2951 (1989). [CrossRef]
  15. W. H. Southwell, "Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters," Appl. Opt. 28, 5091-5094 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, and J. Hazel, "Empirical equations for the principal refractive indices and column angle of obliquely deposited films of tantalum oxide, titanium dioxide, and zirconium oxide," Appl. Opt. 37, 2653-2659 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. F. Chiadini and A. Lakhtakia, "Gaussian model for refractive indexes of columnar thin films and Bragg multilayers," Opt. Commun. 231, 257-261 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Teitler and B. Henvis, "Refraction in stratified anisotropic media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 830-834 (1970). [CrossRef]
  19. D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, "Bragg reflection of light from single-domain cholesteric liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 577-581 (1970). [CrossRef]
  20. D. W. Berreman, "Optics in stratified and anisotropic media: 4×4-matrix formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502-510 (1972). [CrossRef]
  21. P. Yeh, "Electromagnetic propagation in birefringent layered media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 742-756 (1979). [CrossRef]
  22. R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, "Electromagnetic transmission and reflection characteristics of anisotropic multilayered structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1720-1740 (1987). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Schubert, "Polarization-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems," Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265-4274 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, C. Cramer, H. Schmiedel, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, and B. Johs, "Generalized transmission ellipsometry for twisted biaxial dielectric media: application to chiral liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1930-1940 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. I. Abdulhalim, "Analytic propagation matrix method for linear optics of arbitrary biaxial layered media," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 646-653 (1999). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Schubert and C. M. Herzinger, "Ellipsometry on anisotropic materials: Bragg conditions and phonons in dielectric helical thin films," Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 1563-1575 (2001). [CrossRef]
  27. K. L. Woon, M. O'Neill, G. J. Richards, M. P. Aldred, and S. M. Kelly, "Stokes-parameter analysis of the polarization of light transmitted through a chiral nematic liquid-crystal cell," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 760-766 (2005). [CrossRef]
  28. G. D. Landry and T. A. Maldonado, "Gaussian beam transmission and reflection from a general anisotropic multilayer structure," Appl. Opt. 35, 5870-5879 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. Mavrudis, J. Mentel, and M. Schumann, "Representation of birefringent filters by directly composed 4×4 matrices," Appl. Opt. 34, 4217-4227 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. J. Lin-Chung and S. Teitler, "4×4 matrix formalisms for optics in stratified anisotropic media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 703-705 (1984). [CrossRef]
  31. I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. Arnold, M. W. McCall, and A. Lakhtakia, "Chiral mirror and optical resonator designs for circularly polarized light: suppression of cross-polarized reflectances and transmittances," Opt. Commun. 210, 201-211 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition," Appl. Opt. 42, 4573-4579 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Motohiro and Y. Taga, "Thin film retardation plate by oblique deposition," Appl. Opt. 28, 2466-2482 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Gospodyn and J. C. Sit, "Characterization of dielectric columnar thin films by variable angle Mueller matrix and spectroscopic ellipsometry," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 29, 318-325 (2006). [CrossRef]
  35. D. Vick, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Growth behavior of evaporated porous thin films," J. Mater. Res. 17, 2904-2911 (2002). [CrossRef]
  36. K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997). [CrossRef]
  37. K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, "Method of depositing shadow sculpted thin films," U.S. Patent 5,866,204 (February 2, 1999).
  38. I. J. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, M. J. Brett, and K. Robbie, "Vacuum deposition of biaxial films with surface-aligned principal axes and large birefringence Δn," in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 104-106.
  39. I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Serial bideposition of anisotropic thin films with enhanced linear birefringence," Appl. Opt. 38, 3621-3625 (1999). [CrossRef]
  40. I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, L. De Silva, and M. Arnold, "Inorganic positive uniaxial films fabricated by serial bideposition," Opt. Express 12, 3840-3847 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. B. Sorge, A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Circular birefringence dependence on chiral film porosity," Opt. Express 14, 10550-10557 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. S. Y. Lu and R. A. Chipman, "Interpretation of Mueller matrices based on polar decomposition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1106-1113 (1996). [CrossRef]
  43. D. B. Chenault and R. A. Chipman, "Measurements of linear diattenuation and linear retardance spectra with a rotating sample spectropolarimeter," Appl. Opt. 32, 3513-3519 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited