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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 24, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2007
  • pp: 1156–1163

Theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermal resolution and dynamic range of CCD-based thermoreflectance imaging

Peter M. Mayer, Dietrich Lüerßen, Rajeev J. Ram, and Janice A. Hudgings  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 4, pp. 1156-1163 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.24.001156


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Abstract

We demonstrate thermal imaging using a charge-coupled device (CCD) thermoreflectance lock-in technique that achieves a record temperature resolution of 18 mK , 44 dB below the nominal dynamic range of the camera (from 72 to 116 dB ) for 10 5 periods of measurement. We show that the quantization limit of the CCD camera does not set the lower bound on the precision of the technique. We present a theoretical description of the measurement technique, accounting for the effects of noise and nonideal analog-to-digital conversion, resulting in analytic expressions for the probability distribution function of the measured signals, and allowing for explicit calculation of resolution and error bars. The theory is tested against parametrically varied measurements and can be applied to other sampled lock-in measurements. We also experimentally demonstrate sub-quantization-limit imaging on a well-characterized model system, joule heating in a silicon resistor. The accuracy of the resistor thermoreflectance measurement is confirmed by comparing the results with those of a standard 3 ω measurement.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2170) General : Equipment and techniques
(040.1520) Detectors : CCD, charge-coupled device
(120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection
(120.6780) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Temperature

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: September 11, 2006
Revised Manuscript: November 7, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: November 10, 2006
Published: March 14, 2007

Citation
Peter M. Mayer, Dietrich Lüerßen, Rajeev J. Ram, and Janice A. Hudgings, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermal resolution and dynamic range of CCD-based thermoreflectance imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1156-1163 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-4-1156


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