OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 24, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2007
  • pp: 1358–1363

Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images

Kaccie Y. Li and Austin Roorda  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 5, pp. 1358-1363 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.24.001358


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1001 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In making noninvasive measurements of the human cone mosaic, the task of labeling each individual cone is unavoidable. Manual labeling is a time-consuming process, setting the motivation for the development of an automated method. An automated algorithm for labeling cones in adaptive optics (AO) retinal images is implemented and tested on real data. The optical fiber properties of cones aided the design of the algorithm. Out of 2153 manually labeled cones from six different images, the automated method correctly identified 94.1% of them. The agreement between the automated and the manual labeling methods varied from 92.7% to 96.2% across the six images. Results between the two methods disagreed for 1.2% to 9.1% of the cones. Voronoi analysis of large montages of AO retinal images confirmed the general hexagonal-packing structure of retinal cones as well as the general cone density variability across portions of the retina. The consistency of our measurements demonstrates the reliability and practicality of having an automated solution to this problem.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(100.5010) Image processing : Pattern recognition
(330.5310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - photoreceptors

ToC Category:
Image Processing

History
Original Manuscript: July 26, 2006
Revised Manuscript: October 21, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 25, 2006
Published: April 11, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Kaccie Y. Li and Austin Roorda, "Automated identification of cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1358-1363 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-5-1358


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. I. Yellott, "Spectral consequences of photoreceptor sampling in the rhesus retina," Science 221, 382-385 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. R. Williams, "Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye," Vision Res. 28, 433-454 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. A. Curcio and K. R. Sloan, "Packing geometry of human cone photoreceptors--variation with eccentricity and evidence for local anisotropy," Visual Neurosci. 9, 169-180 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Williams and R. Collier, "Consequences of spatial sampling by a human photoreceptor mosaic," Science 221, 385-387 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. R. Williams and N. J. Coletta, "Cone spacing and the visual resolution limit," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1514-1523 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Roorda, A. B. Metha, P. Lennie, and D. R. Williams, "Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in primate retina," Vision Res. 41, 1291-1306 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vision 2, 404-412 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Roorda and K. Y. Li, "AO image processing," (2006), retrieved 2006, vision.berkeley.edu/roordalab/Kaccie/KaccieResearch.htm.
  11. D. R. Williams, "Aliasing in human foveal vision," Vision Res. 25, 195-205 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. M. Mersereau, "Processing of hexagonally sampled two-dimensional signals," Proc. IEEE 67, 930-949 (1979). [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Christou, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "Deconvolution of adaptive optics retinal images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1393-1401 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using Matlab (Pearson Education, 2004), pp. 65-193.
  15. Image Processing Toolbox, Users Guide, Version 4 (The MathWorks, Inc., 2003).
  16. J. M. Enoch, "Optical properties of the retinal receptors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 71-85 (1963). [CrossRef]
  17. J. S. Lim, "Finite impulse response filters," in Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing, A.V.Oppenheim, ed. (Prentice Hall, 1990), pp. 195-263.
  18. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, "Image enhancement in the frequency domain," in Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2001), pp. 147-215.
  19. M. B. Shapiro, S. J. Schein, and F. M. Demonasterio, "Regularity and structure of the spatial pattern of blue cones of macaque retina," J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 80, 803-812 (1985). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002). [PubMed]
  21. Y. H. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. L. Cook, "Stochastic sampling in computer graphics," ACM Trans. Graphics 5, 51-72 (1986). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited