OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 24, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2007
  • pp: 1364–1372

Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera

Bai Xue, Stacey S. Choi, Nathan Doble, and John S. Werner  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 5, pp. 1364-1372 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1524 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A fast and efficient method for quantifying photoreceptor density in images obtained with an en-face flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) imaging system is described. To improve accuracy of cone counting, en-face images are analyzed over extended areas. This is achieved with two separate semiautomated algorithms: (1) a montaging algorithm that joins retinal images with overlapping common features without edge effects and (2) a cone density measurement algorithm that counts the individual cones in the montaged image. The accuracy of the cone density measurement algorithm is high, with > 97 % agreement for a simulated retinal image (of known density, with low contrast) and for AO images from normal eyes when compared with previously reported histological data. Our algorithms do not require spatial regularity in cone packing and are, therefore, useful for counting cones in diseased retinas, as demonstrated for eyes with Stargardt’s macular dystrophy and retinitis pigmentosa.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
(330.5310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - photoreceptors

ToC Category:
Image Processing

Original Manuscript: August 15, 2006
Revised Manuscript: November 10, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: December 1, 2006
Published: April 11, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Bai Xue, Stacey S. Choi, Nathan Doble, and John S. Werner, "Photoreceptor counting and montaging of en-face retinal images from an adaptive optics fundus camera," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1364-1372 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2884-2892 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly III, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002). [PubMed]
  4. D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics spectral optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. Bower, J. Izatt, S. S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Hofer, J. Carroll, M. Neitz, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic," J. Neurosci. 25, 9669-9679 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "Optical fiber properties of individual human cones," J. Vision 2, 404-412 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, "The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580-4592 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 4552-4569 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Lin, J. Christou, and D. R. Williams, "Effect of wavelength on in vivo images of the human cone mosaic," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2598-2605 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Carroll, M. Neitz, H. Hofer, J. Neitz, and D. R. Williams, "Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics, an alternate cause of color blindness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 8461-8466 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. S. Choi, N. Doble, J. Hardy, S. S. Jones, J. Keltner, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "In-vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic in retinal dystrophies and correlations with retinal function," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 2080-2092 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. J. I. Wolfing, M. Chung, J. Carroll, A. Roorda, and D. R. Williams, "High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy," Ophthalmology 113, 1014-1019 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Dubinin, T. Cherezova, A. Belyakov, and A. Kudryashov, "Human eye anisoplanatism: eye as a lamellar structure," Proc. SPIE 6138, 260-266 (2006).
  19. J. Tarrant and A. Roorda, "The extent of the isoplanatic patch of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. E-Abstract 1195/B60 (2006).
  20. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. N. M. Putman, H. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
  23. P. R. Barber, B. Vojnovic, J. Kelly, and C. R. Mayes, "Automatic counting of mammalian cell colonies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 63-76 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. D. Stokes and G. B. Deane, "A new optical instrument for the study of bubbles at high void fractions within breaking waves," IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 24, 300-311 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Danias, F. Sbsen, D. Goldblum, and B. Chen, "Cytoarchitecture of the retinal ganglion cells in the rat," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 587-594 (2002).
  26. F. A. Cosio, J. A. M. Flores, A. P. Castaneda, S. Solano, and P. Tato, "Automatic counting of immunocytochemically stained cells," in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 17-21.
  27. Specification Sheet for Princeton Instruments VersArray 1024, http://www.piacton.com/products/versarray/datasheets.aspx.
  28. R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, "Connected components labeling," in Computer and Robot Vision (Addison-Wesley, 1992), Vol. 1, pp. 28-48.
  29. H. Liang and I. Hartimo, "A feature extraction algorithm based on wavelet packet decomposition for heart sound signals," in Proceedings of the IEEE-SP International Symposium on Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis (IEEE, 1998), pp. 93-96. [CrossRef]
  30. L. G. Brown, "A survey of image registration techniques," ACM Comput. Surv. 24, 325-376 (1992). [CrossRef]
  31. P. Soliz, M. Wilson, S. Nemeth, and P. Nguyen, "Computer-aided methods for quantitative assessment of longitudinal changes in retinal images presenting with maculopathy," Proc. SPIE 4681, 159-170 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Can, C. V. Stewart, and B. Roysam, "A feature-based technique for joint, linear estimation of high-order image-to-mosaic transformations: application to mosaicing the curved human retina," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24, 412-419 (2002). [CrossRef]
  33. J. W. Berger, M. E. Leventon, and N. Hata, "Design considerations for a computer-vision-enabled ophthalmic augmented reality environment," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 1205, 399-408 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited