OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 25, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2008
  • pp: 116–132

Fundamental radar properties. II. Coherent phenomena in space–time

Andrew K. Gabriel  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 116-132 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1176 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A previous publication [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 946–956 (2002) ] presented a general formulation of radiative systems based on special relativity, and properties of imaging radar were derived as examples. Complex and diverse properties of radar images were shown to have a simple and unified origin when viewed as lower-dimensional (temporal) projections of the space–time structure of a radar observation. A diagram was developed that could be manipulated for a simple, intuitive view of the underlying structure of radar observations and phenomena. That treatment is here extended to include coherent phenomena as they appear in the lower time dimensions of the image. Various known coherent properties of imaging radar and interferometry are derived. The formulation is shown to be a generalization of a conventional echo correlation and is extended to a second spatial dimension. From this perspective, coherent properties also have a surprisingly simple and unified structure; their observed complexity is somewhat illusory, also a consequence of projection onto the lower temporal dimension of the receiver. While this formulation and the rules governing it are quite different from the standard treatments, they have the considerable advantage of providing a much simpler, intuitive, and unified description of radiative (radar and optical) systems that is rooted in fundamental physics.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.1880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Detection
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(280.5600) Remote sensing and sensors : Radar
(280.6730) Remote sensing and sensors : Synthetic aperture radar
(350.5720) Other areas of optics : Relativity

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing and Sensors

Original Manuscript: March 17, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: June 13, 2007
Published: December 14, 2007

Andrew K. Gabriel, "Fundamental radar properties. II. Coherent phenomena in space-time," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 116-132 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. K. Gabriel, "Fundamental radar properties: hidden variables in space-time," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 946-956 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Franceschetti and R. Lanari, Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing (CRC Press, 1999).
  3. E. Taylor and J. A. Wheeler, Spacetime Physics, 2nd ed. (Freeman, 1999).
  4. A. K. Gabriel, "Unification of radar phenomena as spacetime curvature: prediction and observation of affine-phase effect," Opt. Lett. 29, 1533-1555 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. K. Gabriel and R. M. Goldstein, "Crossed orbit interferometry: theory and experimental results from SIR-B," Int. J. Remote Sens. 9, 857-872 (1988). [CrossRef]
  6. A. K. Gabriel, R. M. Goldstein, and H. A. Zebker, "Mapping small elevation changes over large areas: Differential radar interferometry," J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9183-9191 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. A. K. Gabriel, "A simple model for SAR azimuth speckle, focusing and interferometric correlation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1885-1888 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. F. Gatelli, A. Monti-Guarnieri, F. Parizzi, P. Pasquali, C. Prati, and F. Rocca, "The wavenumber shift in SAR interferometry," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 855-864 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Gilliam, Time Bandits (Handmade Films, 1981).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited