OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 25, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2008
  • pp: 1142–1146

Aperture size effects on backscatter intensity measurements in Earth and space remote sensing

Mikko Kaasalainen and Sanna Kaasalainen  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 25, Issue 5, pp. 1142-1146 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.25.001142


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (221 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Most materials show a peaked intensity versus phase (light-source–target–detector angle) curve. For nonnegligible angular apertures of the source and/or the detector, the measured intensity at and near zero phase (backscatter) is lower than the real one. We derive an averaging aperture integral that represents this effect, and with it we invert measured intensity values to obtain the actual intensity curve. We also give a practical formula for estimating the magnitude of the aperture effect in zero-phase intensity measurements and show that only two such measurements made at different apertures are sufficient for deriving the real intensity. These corrections are needed in the comparison of measured reflectances in an increasing number of validation efforts for remote sensing applications requiring ground truth measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(290.1350) Scattering : Backscattering
(280.1350) Remote sensing and sensors : Backscattering

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing and Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: October 16, 2007
Revised Manuscript: February 1, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: March 10, 2008
Published: April 24, 2008

Citation
Mikko Kaasalainen and Sanna Kaasalainen, "Aperture size effects on backscatter intensity measurements in Earth and space remote sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1142-1146 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-25-5-1142


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.
  3. D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. K. K. Williams and R. Greeley, “Laboratory and field measurements of the modification of radar backscatter by sand,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 29-40 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. A. J. Verbiscer, R. G. French, and C. A. McGhee, “The opposition surge of enceladus: Hst observations 3381022 nm,” Icarus 173, 66-83 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Harding and C. C. Carabajal, “ICESat waveform measurements of within-footprint topographic relief and vegetation vertical structure,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S10 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL023471. [CrossRef]
  10. M.-J. Kim, J. C. Dainty, A. T. Friberg, and A. J. Sant, “Experimental study of enhanced backscattering from one- and two-dimensional random rough surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 569-577 (1990). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Ellis, P. Caillard, and A. Dogariu, “Off-diagonal Mueller matrix elements in backscattering from highly diffusive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 43-48 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906-1908 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Low-coherent backscattering spectroscopy for tissue characterization,” Appl. Opt. 44, 366-377 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, “Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2005, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2005), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W19), pp. 13-17. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.
  18. S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, J. Suomalainen, M. Kaasalainen, and F. Stenman, “Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. F. Coren and P. Sterzai, “Radiometric correction in laser scanning,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 3097-3104 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. D. S. Boyd and R. A. Hill, “Validation of airborne lidar intensity values from a forested landscape using hymap data: preliminary analyses,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI, (Part 3/W52), pp. 71-76. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.
  22. C. Hopkinson, “The influence of flying altitude, beam divergence, and pulse repetition frequency on laser pulse return intensity and canopy frequency distribution,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 33, 312-324 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing 54, 68-82 (1999). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and K. Muinonen, “Optimization methods for asteroid lightcurve inversion. ii. the complete inverse problem,” Icarus 153, 37-51 (2001). [CrossRef]
  25. S. Kaasalainen and M. Rautiainen, “Hot spot reflectance signatures of common boreal lichens,” J. Geophys. Res. 110D20102 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005JD005834. [CrossRef]
  26. E. Ahokas, S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, “Calibration of the optech altm 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets,” in ISPRS Commission I Symposium, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2006), p. 36(A1). CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited