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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 25, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2008
  • pp: 1190–1198

On-chip, time-correlated, fluorescence lifetime extraction algorithms and error analysis

Day-Uei Li, Eleanor Bonnist, David Renshaw, and Robert Henderson  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 25, Issue 5, pp. 1190-1198 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.25.001190


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Abstract

A new, simple, and hardware-only fluorescence-lifetime-imaging microscopy (FLIM) is proposed to implement on-chip lifetime extractions, and their signal-to-noise-ratio based on statistics theory is also deduced. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving good agreement. Compared with the commonly used iterative least-squares method or the maximum-likelihood-estimation- (MLE-) based, general purpose FLIM analysis software, our algorithm offers direct calculation of fluorescence lifetime based on the collected photon counts stored in on-chip counters and therefore delivers faster analysis for real-time applications, such as clinical diagnosis. Error analysis considering timing jitter based on statistics theory is carried out for the proposed algorithms and is also compared with MLE to obtain optimized channel width or measurement window and bit resolution of the time-to-digital converters for a given accuracy. A multi-exponential, pipelined fluorescence lifetime method based on the proposed algorithms is also introduced. The performance of the proposed methods has been tested on mono-exponential and four-exponential decay experimental data.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.5490) General : Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics
(030.4280) Coherence and statistical optics : Noise in imaging systems
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(170.3650) Medical optics and biotechnology : Lifetime-based sensing
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging
(040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: September 21, 2007
Revised Manuscript: February 27, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: March 2, 2008
Published: April 30, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Day-Uei Li, Eleanor Bonnist, David Renshaw, and Robert Henderson, "On-chip, time-correlated, fluorescence lifetime extraction algorithms and error analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1190-1198 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-25-5-1190


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