OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 25, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2008
  • pp: 1319–1329

Resolution in structured illumination microscopy: a probabilistic approach

Michael G. Somekh, Ken Hsu, and Mark C. Pitter  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 25, Issue 6, pp. 1319-1329 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (624 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Structured illumination can be employed to extend the lateral resolution of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. Since a structured illumination microscopy image is reconstructed from a series of several acquired images, we develop a modified formulation of the imaging response of the microscope and a probabilistic analysis to assess the resolution performance. We use this model to compare the fluorescence imaging performance of structured illumination techniques to confocal microscopy. Specifically, we examine the trade-off between achievable lateral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio when photon shot noise is dominant. We conclude that for a given photon budget, structured illumination invariably achieves better lateral resolution than confocal microscopy.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.5490) General : Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics
(030.4280) Coherence and statistical optics : Noise in imaging systems
(030.5290) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon statistics
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 15, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 20, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: March 20, 2008
Published: May 15, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Michael G. Somekh, Ken Hsu, and Mark C. Pitter, "Resolution in structured illumination microscopy: a probabilistic approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1319-1329 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198, 82-87 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. G. L. Gustafsson, D. A. Agard, and J. W. Sedat, “Doubling the lateral resolution of wide-field fluorescence microscopy using structured illumination,” Proc. SPIE 3919, 141-150 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. H. H. Hopkins and P. M. Barham, “The influence of the condenser on microscopic resolution,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B 63, 737-744 (1950). [CrossRef]
  4. S. G. Lipson, “Why is super-resolution so inefficient?” Micron 34, 309-312 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Toraldo di Francia, “Super-gain antennas and optical resolving power,” Nuovo Cimento, Suppl. 9, 426-438 (1952). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ram, E. S. Ward, and R. J. Ober, “Beyond Rayleigh's criterion: a resolution measure with application to single-molecule microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 4457-4462 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. O. Rice, “Mathematical analysis of random noise,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 23, 282-332 (1944).
  8. R. N. Bracewell, “Applications in statistics,” in The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp. 428-438.
  9. A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, “Characteristic functions,” in Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 2002), Chap. 5, pp. 152-168.
  10. M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 13081-13086 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Heintzmann, “Saturated patterned excitation microscopy with two-dimensional excitation patterns,” Micron 34, 283-291 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Method of obtaining optical sectioning by using structured light in a conventional microscope,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1905-1907 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited