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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 25, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2008
  • pp: 2156–2164

Fundamental electromagnetic Gaussian beam beyond the paraxial approximation

S. R. Seshadri  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 25, Issue 9, pp. 2156-2164 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.25.002156


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Abstract

The fundamental electromagnetic Gaussian beam is constructed from a single component of the electric vector potential oriented normal to the propagation direction. The potential is cylindrically symmetrical about the propagation direction. The paraxial beam and the first-order nonparaxial beam are obtained. In solving the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation governing the evolution of the nonparaxial beam, both the particular integral and the complementary function are included. A procedure for deducing the proper asymptotic state of the nonparaxial beam is summarized. The amplitude coefficients of the cylindrically symmetric complex-argument Laguerre–Gauss beams, which constitute the complementary function are determined by requiring the potential to have the proper behavior asymptotically at infinity and near the input plane. From the potential function, the electromagnetic fields are developed and the electrodynamics of the fundamental electromagnetic Gaussian beam beyond the paraxial approximation is investigated. The role of the first-order nonparaxial beam in determining the average beam characteristics is examined.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
(350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation
(350.7420) Other areas of optics : Waves

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 7, 2008
Revised Manuscript: June 20, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: June 20, 2008
Published: August 4, 2008

Citation
S. R. Seshadri, "Fundamental electromagnetic Gaussian beam beyond the paraxial approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2156-2164 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-25-9-2156

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