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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Stephen A. Burns
  • Vol. 26, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2009
  • pp: 804–814

Hardware implementation and calibration of background noise for an integration-based fluorescence lifetime sensing algorithm

Day-Uei Li, Richard Walker, Justin Richardson, Bruce Rae, Alex Buts, David Renshaw, and Robert Henderson  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 26, Issue 4, pp. 804-814 (2009)

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A new integration based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) called IEM has been proposed to implement lifetime extraction [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1190 (2008) ]. A real-time hardware implementation of the IEM FLIM algorithm suitable for single photon avalanche diode arrays in nanometer-scale CMOS technology is now proposed. The problems of reduced pixel readout bandwidth and background noise are studied and a calibration method suitable for FPGA implementation is introduced. In particular, the relationship between signal-to-noise ratio and background noise is considered based on statistics theory and compared with a rapid lifetime determination method and maximum-likelihood estimator with–without background correction. The results are also compared with Monte Carlo simulations giving good agreement. The performance of the proposed methods has been tested on monoexponential decay experimental data. The high flexibility, wide range, and hardware friendliness make IEM the best candidate for system-on-chip integration to our knowledge.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(030.5290) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon statistics
(040.6070) Detectors : Solid state detectors
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(170.3650) Medical optics and biotechnology : Lifetime-based sensing
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging

ToC Category:
Coherence and Statistical Optics

Original Manuscript: December 10, 2008
Revised Manuscript: January 28, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: February 2, 2009
Published: March 17, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Day-Uei Li, Richard Walker, Justin Richardson, Bruce Rae, Alex Buts, David Renshaw, and Robert Henderson, "Hardware implementation and calibration of background noise for an integration-based fluorescence lifetime sensing algorithm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 804-814 (2009)

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