OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Franco Gori
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2010
  • pp: 131–140

Millimeter wave imaging system modeling: spatial frequency domain calculation versus spatial domain calculation

Feng Qi, Vahid Tavakol, Ilja Ocket, Peng Xu, Dominique Schreurs, Jinkuan Wang, and Bart Nauwelaers  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 27, Issue 1, pp. 131-140 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.27.000131


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (384 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Active millimeter wave imaging systems have become a promising candidate for indoor security applications and industrial inspection. However, there is a lack of simulation tools at the system level. We introduce and evaluate two modeling approaches that are applied to active millimeter wave imaging systems. The first approach originates in Fourier optics and concerns the calculation in the spatial frequency domain. The second approach is based on wave propagation and corresponds to calculation in the spatial domain. We compare the two approaches in the case of both rough and smooth objects and point out that the spatial frequency domain calculation may suffer from a large error in amplitude of 50% in the case of rough objects. The comparison demonstrates that the concepts of point-spread function and f-number should be applied with careful consideration in coherent millimeter wave imaging systems. In the case of indoor applications, the near-field effect should be considered, and this is included in the spatial domain calculation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
(070.0070) Fourier optics and signal processing : Fourier optics and signal processing
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.1650) Imaging systems : Coherence imaging
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

History
Original Manuscript: June 2, 2009
Revised Manuscript: November 8, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: November 23, 2009
Published: December 24, 2009

Citation
Feng Qi, Vahid Tavakol, Ilja Ocket, Peng Xu, Dominique Schreurs, Jinkuan Wang, and Bart Nauwelaers, "Millimeter wave imaging system modeling: spatial frequency domain calculation versus spatial domain calculation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 131-140 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-27-1-131


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. E. N. Grossman, A. Luukanen, and A. J. Miller, “Terahertz active direct detection imagers,” Proc. SPIE 5411, 68-77 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. B. Grafulla-Gonzalez, K. Lebart, and A. R. Harvey, “Physical optics modeling of millimeter-wave personnel scanners,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 27, 1852-1862 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. F. Qi, I. Ocket, V. Tavakol, D. Schreurs, and B. Nauwelaers, “Millimeter wave imaging: system modeling and phenomena discussion,” in Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications, September 24-26, 2007, Dubrovnik (2007), pp. 283-286.
  4. G. N. Sinclair, R. N. Anderton, and R. Appleby, “Outdoor passive millimeter wave security screening,” in Proceedings of IEEE 35th International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (IEEE, 2001), pp. 172-179.
  5. L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, “Passive millimeter-wave imaging,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(3), 39-50 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Luo, J. Xiong, and J. Yang, “A model-based analyzing and calculating of the focal plane array for passive millimeter wave imaging system,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Circuits and Systems Proceedings, June 25-28, 2006, Guilin, China, pp. 629-632. [CrossRef]
  7. L. Zhang, J. Stiens, A. Elhawil, and R. Vounckx, “Multispectral illumination and image processing techniques for active millimeter-wave concealed object detection,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6357-6365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  9. P. R. Goldsmith, C. T. Hsieh, G. R. Huguenin, J. Kapitzky, and E. L. Moore, “Focal plane imaging systems for millimeter wavelengths,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1664-1675 (1993). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Appleby and H. B. Wallace, “Standoff detection of weapons and contraband in the 100 GHzto1 THz region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2944-2956 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts, 2007).
  12. W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design (Wiley, 1998).
  13. S. Mezouari and A. R. Harvey, “Validity of Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations in scalar diffraction,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 86-91 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Hasegawa, M. Hoshino, and T. Iwasaki, “Simulation of diffraction fields for microwave imaging,” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, May 17-21, 1999, Tokyo (1999) pp. 428-431.
  15. J. E. Harvey, “Fourier treatment of near-field scalar diffraction theory,” Am. J. Phys. 47, 974-980 (1979). [CrossRef]
  16. J. E. Harvey, D. Bogunovic, and A. Krywonos, “Aberrations of diffracted wave fields: distortion,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1167-1174 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. H. Southwell, “Validity of the Fresnel approximation in the near field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 7-14 (1981). [CrossRef]
  18. F. D. Feiock, “Wave propagation in optical systems with large apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 485-489 (1978). [CrossRef]
  19. F. Qi, V. Tavakol, D. Schreurs, and B. Nauwelaers, “Inaccuracies in Fourier optics,” in Proceedings of URSI-Benelux Forum, June 8, 2009, Delft (2009).
  20. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. Qi, D. Schreurs, V. Tavakol, and B. Nauwelaers, “Comparison of optical and millimeter wave imaging on speckle,” IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1-4.
  22. S. Zhang, Near Field Optical Microscope and Its Applications (Science Press, 2000).
  23. V. Tavakol, F. Qi, I. Ocket, D. Schreurs, and B. Nauwelaers, “System modeling for active mm-wave imaging systems using an enhanced calculation method,” in Proceedings of European Radar Conference, October 30-31, 2008, Amsterdam (2008) pp. 56-59.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited