OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Franco Gori
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2010
  • pp: A106–A121

Obscuration-free pupil-plane phase locking of a coherent array of fiber collimators

Mikhail A. Vorontsov, Svetlana L. Lachinova, Leonid A. Beresnev, and Thomas Weyrauch  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 27, Issue 11, pp. A106-A121 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.27.00A106


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1398 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Control methods and system architectures that can be used for locking in phase of multiple laser beams that are generated at the transmitter aperture plane of a coherent fiber-collimator array system (pupil-plane phase locking) are considered. In the proposed and analyzed phase-locking techniques, sensing of the piston phase differences is performed using interference of periphery (tail) sections of the laser beams prior to their clipping by the fiber-collimator transmitter apertures. This obscuration-free sensing technique eliminates the need for a beam splitter being directly located inside the optical train of the transmitted beams—one of the major drawbacks of large-aperture and/or high-power fiber-array systems. Numerical simulation results demonstrate efficiency of the proposed phase-locking methods.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing
(140.3290) Lasers and laser optics : Laser arrays
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(140.3298) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam combining

History
Original Manuscript: March 30, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 9, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 11, 2010
Published: September 17, 2010

Citation
Mikhail A. Vorontsov, Svetlana L. Lachinova, Leonid A. Beresnev, and Thomas Weyrauch, "Obscuration-free pupil-plane phase locking of a coherent array of fiber collimators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, A106-A121 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-27-11-A106


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J.R.Leger, J.Nilsson, J.P.Huignard, A.P.Napartovich, T.M.Shay, and A.Shirakawa, eds., Special issue, “Laser beam combining and fiber laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 237–470 (2009).
  2. K. H. Kudielka, A. Kalmar, and W. R. Leeb, “Design and breadboarding of a phased telescope array for free-space laser communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology (IEEE, 1996), pp. 419–424. [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, “Adaptive array of phase-locked fiber collimators: Analysis and experimental demonstration,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269–280 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 567–577 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Augst, J. K. Ranka, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Beam combining of ytterbium fiber amplifiers (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1707–1715 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. Nabors, “Effects of phase errors on coherent emitter arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2284–2289 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Sprangle, A. Ting, J. Penano, R. Fischer, and B. Hafizi, “Incoherent combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power fiber lasers for directed-energy applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 138–148 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1–59 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. V. I. Kovalev, Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK (personal communication, 2010).
  10. P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1078–1096 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. T. H. Loftus, A. M. Thomas, P. R. Hoffman, M. Norsen, R. Royse, A. Liu, and E. C. Honea, “Spectrally beam-combined fiber lasers for high-average-power applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 487–497 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Sevian, O. Andrusyak, I. Ciapurin, V. Smirnov, G. Venus, and L. Glebov, “Efficient power scaling of laser radiation by spectral beam combining,” Opt. Lett. 33, 384–386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. R. Leger, “External methods of phase locking and coherent beam addition of diode lasers,” in Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays, G.A.Evans and J.M.Hammer, eds. (Academic, 1993), pp. 379–433.
  14. M. Minden, “Coherent coupling of a fiber amplifier array,” in Thirteenth Annual Solid State and Diode Laser Technology Review, SSDLTR 2000 Tech. Digest (U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory, 2000).
  15. A. F. Glova, “Phase locking of optically coupled lasers,” Quantum Electron. 33, 283–306 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Anderegg, S. J. Brosnan, M. E. Weber, H. Komine, and M. G. Wickham, “8-W coherently phased 4-element fiber array,” Proc. SPIE 4974, 1–6 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Anderegg, S. Brosnan, E. Cheung, P. Epp, D. Hammons, H. Komine, M. Weber, and M. Wickham, “Coherently coupled high-power fiber arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020U (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. J. E. Kansky, C. X. Yu, D. V. Murphy, S. E. J. Shaw, R. C. Lawrence, and C. Higgs, “Beam control of a 2D polarization maintaining fiber optic phased array with high-fiber count,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060G (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. M. A. Vorontsov and S. L. Lachinova, “Laser beam projection with adaptive array of fiber collimators. I. Basic considerations for analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1949–1959 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. S. L. Lachinova and M. A. Vorontsov, “Laser beam projection with adaptive array of fiber collimators. II. Analysis of atmospheric compensation efficiency,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1960–1973 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. R. A. Motes and R. W. Berdine, Introduction to High Power Fiber Lasers (Directed Energy Professional Society, 2009).
  22. B. Lei and Y. Feng, “Phase locking of an array of three fiber lasers by an all-fiber coupling loop,” Opt. Express 15, 17114–17119 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Chen, J. Hou, P. Zhou, X. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Jiang, and Z. Liu, “Mutual injection locking and coherent combining of three individual fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 282, 60–63 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. EOSPACE, http://www.eospace.com/.
  25. H. Bruesselbach, D. C. Jones, M. S. Mangir, M. Minden, and J. L. Rogers, “Self-organized coherence in fiber laser arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1339–1341 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69–82 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Ichikawa, “LiNbO3 based optical devices for fiber communication,” J. China Univ. Posts Telecommun. 16, 12–15 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. T. R. O’Meara, “The multidither principle in adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 306–315 (1977). [CrossRef]
  29. T. M. Shay, “Theory of electronically phased coherent beam combination without a reference beam,” Opt. Express 14, 12188–12195 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, and J. C. Ricklin, “Adaptive phase-distortion correction based on parallel gradient-descent optimization,” Opt. Lett. 22, 907–909 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, M. Cohen, and G. Cauwenberghs, “Adaptive optics based on analog parallel stochastic optimization: analysis and experimental demonstration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1440–1453 (2000). [CrossRef]
  32. W. S. Levine, ed., The Control Handbook (CRC Press, 1996).
  33. M. A. Vorontsov and V. I. Shmal’hauzen, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Nauka, 1985).
  34. B. M. ter Haar Romey, ed., Geometry-Driven Diffusion in Computer Vision (Kluwer Academic, 1994).
  35. E. W. Justh, M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, L. A. Beresnev, and P. S. Krishnaprasad, “Adaptive optics with advanced phase-contrast techniques. II. High-resolution wave-front control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1300–1311 (2001). [CrossRef]
  36. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  37. M. A. Vorontsov, “Decoupled stochastic parallel gradient descent optimization for adaptive optics: Integrated approach for wave-front sensor information fusion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 356–368 (2002). [CrossRef]
  38. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, 1980).
  39. M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, L. A. Beresnev, T. Weyrauch, and S. L. Lachinova, “Phase-locking system for fiber collimator array,” Invention Disclosure, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, University of Maryland (June 2009).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited