OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Franco Gori
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2010
  • pp: 2613–2620

Design and fabrication of a freeform prism array for 3D microscopy

Lei Li and Allen Y. Yi  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 27, Issue 12, pp. 2613-2620 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.27.002613


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (748 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Traditional microscopes have limitations in obtaining true 3D (three-dimensional) stereovision. Although some optical microscopes have been developed for 3D vision, many of them are complex, expensive, or limited to transparent samples. In this research, a freeform optical prism array was designed and fabricated to achieve 3D stereo imaging capability for microscope and machine vision applications. To form clear stereo images from multiple directions simultaneously, freeform optical surface design was applied to the prisms. In a ray tracing operation to determine the optical performance of the freeform prisms, Taylor series was used to calculate the surface shape. The virtual image spot diagrams were generated by using ray tracing methods for both the freeform prisms and the regular prisms. The results showed that all the light rays can be traced back to a single point for the freeform prism, and aberration was much smaller than that of the regular prism. The ray spots formed by the freeform prisms were adequate for image formation. Furthermore, the freeform prism array was fabricated by using a combined ultraprecision diamond turning and slow tool servo broaching process in a single, uninterrupted operation. The slow tool servo process ensured that the relative tolerance among prisms is guaranteed by the precision of the ultraprecision machine without the need for assembly. Finally 3D imaging tests were conducted to verify the freeform prism array’s optical performance. The principle of the freeform prism array investigated in this research can be applied to microscopy, machine vision, robotic sensing, and many other areas.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(220.2740) Optical design and fabrication : Geometric optical design

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: September 7, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 24, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 25, 2010
Published: November 17, 2010

Citation
Lei Li and Allen Y. Yi, "Design and fabrication of a freeform prism array for 3D microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2613-2620 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-27-12-2613


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. G. Rochow, P. A. Tucker, Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X Rays, or Acoustics (Plenum, 1994).
  2. M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, M. Horowitz, “Light field microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graphics 25, 924–34 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Levoy, Z. Zhang, I. Mcdowall, “Recording and controlling the 4D light field in a microscope using microlens arrays,” J. Microsc. 235(2), p 144–61 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Rosen, G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2, 190–195 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. http://www.hirox-usa.com/products/microscope/kh7700_03.html.
  6. http://www.waltrontech.com/EN/index.asp.
  7. http://www.digitalmicroscope.com/feature/multi_viewer.php.
  8. D. H. Lee, I. S. Kweon, “A novel stereo camera system by a biprism,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 16, 528–541 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Y. Chen, T. T. Yang, W. S. Sun, “Optics system design applying a micro-prism array of a single lens stereo image pair,” Opt. Express 16, 15495–15505 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Xiao, K. B. Lim, “A prism-based single-lens stereovision system: From trinocular to multi-ocular,” Image Vis. Comput. 25, 1725–1736 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Bergmann, Optics of Waves and Particles (Walter de Gruyter, 1999).
  12. H. Ries, J. Muschaweck, “Tailored freeform optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 590–595 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Hao, Z. Zheng, X. Liu, P. Gu, “Freeform surface lens design for uniform illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 075005 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2655–2668 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Yang, J. T. Makinen, M. Aikio, G. Jin, Y. Wang, “Free-form lens design for wide-angle imaging with an equidistance projection scheme,” Optik 120, 74–78 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kasap and P. Capper, eds., Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials (Springer, 2007). [CrossRef]
  17. L. Li, A. Y. Yi, “Development of a 3D artificial compound eye,” Opt. Express 18, 18125–18137 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Li, S. A. Collins, A. Y. Yi, “Optical effects of surface finish by ultraprecision single point diamond machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 021002 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. C. N. Huang, L. Li, A. Y. Yi, “Design and fabrication of a micro alvarez lens array with a variable focal length,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 559–563 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Y. Yi, C. N. Huang, F. Klocke, C. Brecher, M. Winterschladen, G. Pongs, “Compression molding of freeform glass optics,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6511–6518 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited