OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Editor: Franco Gori
  • Vol. 28, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1925–1934

Effect of processing strategies on the stochastic transfer function in structured illumination microscopy

Michael G. Somekh, Ken Hsu, and Mark C. Pitter  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 28, Issue 9, pp. 1925-1934 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (600 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The stochastic transfer function (STF) has been introduced in previous publications [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1622 (2009)]. This encompasses the conventional transfer function as well as a measure of the noise at each spatial frequency. We use the STF as a metric to characterize the noise performance of structured illumination microscopy where the final image is synthesized from several constituent images. In particular, we examine the effect of different processing strategies on the signal to noise at different spatial frequencies. We extend the so-called weighted average approach to account for different grating periods, where the noise in different image contributions is correlated. Finally, we demonstrate by simulation that a superior STF does lead to better imaging of a two-point object.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(110.4280) Imaging systems : Noise in imaging systems
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: March 2, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 17, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 18, 2011
Published: August 29, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Michael G. Somekh, Ken Hsu, and Mark C. Pitter, "Effect of processing strategies on the stochastic transfer function in structured illumination microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1925-1934 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. W. Hell, M. Schrader, and H. T. M. van der Voort, “Far-field fluorescence microscopy with three-dimensional resolution in the 100 nm range,” J. Microsc. 187, 1–7 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198, 82–87 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Heintzmann, “Saturated patterned excitation microscopy with two-dimensional excitation patterns,” Micron 34, 283–291(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Hsu, M. G. Somekh, and M. C. Pitter, “Stochastic transfer function: application to fluorescence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1622–1629 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. M. G. Somekh, K. Hsu, and M. C. Pitter, “Stochastic transfer function for structured illumination microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1630–1637 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Heintzmann and C. Cremer, “Laterally modulated excitation microscopy: improvement of resolution by using a diffraction grating,” Proc. SPIE 3568, 185–196 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hsu, “Stochastic analysis of lateral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in fluorescence microscopy: application to structured illumination microscopy,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Nottingham, 2010).
  8. E. Chung, D. Kim, Y. Cui, Y.-H. Kim, and P. T. C. So, “Two-dimensional standing wave total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy: superresolution imaging of single molecular and biological specimens,” Biophys. J. 93, 1747–1757(2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. G. Somekh, K. Hsu, and M. C. Pitter, “Resolution in structured illumination microscopy: an analytical probabilistic approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1319–1329 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Papoulis, Probability Random Variables and Stochastic Processes (McGraw Hill, 1965), Chap. 7, p. 226.
  11. C. W. See, C. J. Chuang, S. G. Liu, and M. G. Somekh, “Proximity projection grating structured light illumination microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6570–6576 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited