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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Franco Gori
  • Vol. 31, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2014
  • pp: A125–A130

Evaluation of a model to predict anomalous-observer performance with the 100-hue test

Jack Moreland, Vien Cheung, and Stephen Westland  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. A125-A130 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.31.00A125


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Abstract

Two subjects, protanomalous and deuteranomalous, performed the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test with and without prescribed ColorView spectacle aids under simulated D65 lighting. Errors were greater with aids than without. Using spectral measurements of test reflectance, aid transmittance and lighting, chromaticities of the 100-hue caps were calculated with and without aids in the uniform chromaticity diagrams for protanomaly and protanomaly [Ophthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 30, 685 (2010).]. Errors were modeled from chromatic spacing on a smoothed 100-hue locus together with a distractor term, derived from the distances of raw data from that locus. Good correspondence was found between the measured test and model profiles for the major maxima as well as other aspects of shape and position.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.0330) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision, color, and visual optics
(330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision
(330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
(330.5370) Vision, color, and visual optics : Physiological optics

ToC Category:
Variations and deficiencies of color vision

History
Original Manuscript: October 3, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 2, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 8, 2013
Published: January 24, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Jack Moreland, Vien Cheung, and Stephen Westland, "Evaluation of a model to predict anomalous-observer performance with the 100-hue test," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A125-A130 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-31-4-A125


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References

  1. I. Schmidt, “Visual aids for correction of red-green colour deficiencies,” Can. J. Optom. 38, 38–47 (1976).
  2. L. T. Sharpe and H. Jägle, “I used to be color blind,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S269–S272 (2001).
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  6. H. Krastel, H. Gehrung, K. Dax, and K. Rohrschneider, “Clinical application of the Heidelberg anomaloscope,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 54, 135–149 (1991). This anomaloscope employs a 2° bipartite field with narrow bandwidth stimuli. One half is a yellow (589 nm) and the other a mixture of red and green (664 nm and 548 nm). Rayleigh matches are metameric foveal color matches made between the two half-fields.
  7. Color matches made by anomalous trichromats are shifted from those of normal trichromats; matches with excess red in the mixture diagnose protanomaly while those with excess green diagnose deuteranomaly.
  8. http://www.color-view.com/products.php#model .
  9. D. Farnsworth, The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test: For the Examination of Color Discrimination (Munsell Color Company, 1957).
  10. Courtesy of Prof. Ron Douglas, City University, London, U.K.
  11. The 100 hue manual states, “The score for a cap is the sum of the (absolute) differences between the number of that cap and the numbers of the caps adjacent to it.”
  12. P. Kinnear, “Proposals for scoring and assessing the 100-hue test,” Vis. Res. 10, 423–433 (1970). [CrossRef]
  13. Farnsworth coined portmanteau terms which cover anomalous trichromacy and dichromacy: protan for protanomaly and protanopia and deutan for deuteranomaly and deuteranopia.
  14. P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992). [CrossRef]
  15. Reference [5]. The compressive equation converting the long wavelength cone excitations l to a uniform scale is fn(l)=a log([lp]b+c, where lp is a projective transform of l and a, b, and c are constants which optimize uniformity of the fn(l) scale. The equation for fn(s) has the same form but with different constants. The fn(s) scale of Ref. [5] is reduced here by a factor of 5 to harmonize with the fn(l) scale.
  16. G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, and A. Uvijls, “A new assessment of the normal ranges of the 100 hue total scores,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, 199–208 (1982).
  17. The 100 hue cap score for a correct arrangement is 2, which is subtracted in summing the total error score.
  18. Farnsworth incorporated “slight differences” to require “some aptitude in normals” and to detect “color defectives by forcing them to resort to criteria other than hue difference.”
  19. K. H. Ruddock, “Light transmission through the ocular media and macular pigment and its significance for psychophysical investigation,” in Visual Psychophysics, Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), Vol. 7/4, pp. 455–469.
  20. J. D. Moreland and S. L. Dain, “Macular pigment contributes to variance in 100 hue tests,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 57, 517–522 (1995).

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